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Current Issues in Molecular Biology is published by MDPI from Volume 43 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Caister Press.

Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2006) – 4 articles

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1917 KiB  
Review
Ligand-responsive Transcriptional Regulation by Members of the MarR Family of Winged Helix Proteins
by Steven P. Wilkinson and Anne Grove
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(1), 51-62; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.051 - 3 Feb 2006
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
The MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance regulator) family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators includes proteins critical for control of virulence factor production, bacterial response to antibiotic and oxidative stresses and catabolism of environmental aromatic compounds. Recognition of the adaptive cellular responses mediated by MarR homologs, [...] Read more.
The MarR (multiple antibiotic resistance regulator) family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators includes proteins critical for control of virulence factor production, bacterial response to antibiotic and oxidative stresses and catabolism of environmental aromatic compounds. Recognition of the adaptive cellular responses mediated by MarR homologs, and the clinical isolation of antibioticresistant bacterial strains harboring MarR mutations, has garnered increasing medical and agricultural attention to this family. MarR proteins exist as homodimers in both free and DNA-bound states. Sequence specific DNA-binding to palindromic or pseudopalindromic sites is mediated by a conserved winged helix fold and, for numerous homologs, this association is attenuated by specific anionic lipophilic ligands. The mechanism of ligand-mediated allosteric control of DNA binding is unique amongst prokaryotic transcriptional regulators in that the DNA- and ligandbinding domains almost completely overlap in the residues involved. Until recently, our understanding of ligand-binding has been limited to a MarR-salicylate cocrystal structure, with little information on the allosteric mechanisms linking ligand-recognition and DNA-binding. However, recent biochemical and biophysical data on MarR homologs have begun to resolve the mechanisms by which these proteins mediate ligand-responsive transcriptional control. Full article
903 KiB  
Review
The Role of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Regulation of Signal Transduction Pathways in Unicellular Eukaryotes
by Irina V. Schemarova
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(1), 27-50; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.027 - 3 Feb 2006
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 349
Abstract
The review summarizes for the first time the current concepts of the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in regulation of signal transduction pathways in unicellular eukaryotes. Evolutionary concepts are developed about the origin of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK)-signaling. Full article
1675 KiB  
Review
Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Human Bacterial Pathogens
by Victor Nizet
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(1), 11-26; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.011 - 3 Feb 2006
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1107
Abstract
The critical role played by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in mammalian innate immunity is increasingly recognized. Bacteria differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to AMPs, and the relative resistance of some important human pathogens to these defense molecules is now appreciated as an important virulence [...] Read more.
The critical role played by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in mammalian innate immunity is increasingly recognized. Bacteria differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to AMPs, and the relative resistance of some important human pathogens to these defense molecules is now appreciated as an important virulence phenotype. Experimental analysis has identified diverse mechanisms of bacterial AMP resistance including altered cell surface charge, active efflux, production of proteases or trapping proteins, and modification of host cellular processes. The contribution of these resistance mechanisms to pathogenesis is confirmed through direct comparison of wild-type bacteria and AMP-sensitive mutants using in vivo infection models. Knowledge of the molecular basis of bacterial AMP resistance may provide new targets for antimicrobial therapy of human infectious diseases. Full article
1367 KiB  
Review
Quorum Sensing and the Lifestyle of Yersinia
by Steven Atkinson, R. Elizabeth Sockett, Miguel Cámara and Paul Williams
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2006, 8(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.008.001 - 3 Feb 2006
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Bacterial cell-to-cell communication ('quorum sensing') is mediated by structurally diverse, small diffusible signal molecules which regulate gene expression as a function of cell population density. Many different Gram-negative animal, plant and fish pathogens employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing signal molecules [...] Read more.
Bacterial cell-to-cell communication ('quorum sensing') is mediated by structurally diverse, small diffusible signal molecules which regulate gene expression as a function of cell population density. Many different Gram-negative animal, plant and fish pathogens employ N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing signal molecules which control diverse physiological processes including bioluminescence, swarming, antibiotic biosynthesis, plasmid conjugal transfer, biofilm development and virulence. AHL-dependent quorum sensing is highly conserved in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the genus Yersinia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis for example, produces at least eight different AHLs and possesses two homologues of the LuxI family of AHL synthases and two members of the LuxR family of AHL-dependent response regulators. In all Yersinia species so far examined, the genes coding for LuxR and LuxI homologues are characteristically arranged convergently and overlapping. In Y. pseudotuberculosis AHL-dependent quorum sensing is involved in the control of cell aggregation and swimming motility, the latter via the flagellar regulatory cascade. This is also the case for swimming and also swarming motility in Yersinia enterocolitica. However the role of AHL-dependent quorum sensing in Yersinia pestis remains to be determined. Full article
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