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Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 46, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 45 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diabetes is caused by abnormal glucose metabolism, and muscle, the largest tissue in the human body, is largely involved. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting abnormalities in muscle glucose metabolism are effective. In the present study, we focused on urolithin A (UroA), a major intestinal metabolite of ellagic acid and ellagitannins, which are polyphenols found in fruits such as strawberries, and investigated its potential antidiabetic effects using cultured myotubes and a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Results suggested that UroA promotes glucose uptake by inducing the translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane via activation of both PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways in muscle. Based on these results, UroA is expected to be a biofactor with antidiabetic effects. View this paper
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15 pages, 2827 KiB  
Article
Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] Based on the Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence
by Haoran Wang, Yuan Zhang, Ling Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Hailin Guo, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Dandan Li, Ling Li, Jianxiu Liu and Jianjian Li
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1635-1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020106 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) is an important warm-season grass plant used as a turfgrass as well as pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions, with wide application in land surface greening and soil conservation in South China and southern United States. In [...] Read more.
Centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) is an important warm-season grass plant used as a turfgrass as well as pasture grass in tropical and subtropical regions, with wide application in land surface greening and soil conservation in South China and southern United States. In this study, the complete cp genome of E. ophiuroides was assembled using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The circle pseudomolecule for E. ophiuroides cp genome is 139,107 bp in length, with a quadripartite structure consisting of a large single copyregion of 82,081 bp and a small single copy region of 12,566 bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions of 22,230 bp each. The overall A + T content of the whole genome is 61.60%, showing an asymmetric nucleotide composition. The genome encodes a total of 131 gene species, composed of 20 duplicated genes within the IR regions and 111 unique genes comprising 77 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes, and 4 ribosome RNA genes. The complete cp genome sequence contains 51 long repeats and 197 simple sequence repeats, and a high degree of collinearity among E. ophiuroide and other Gramineae plants was disclosed. Phylogenetic analysis showed E. ophiuroides, together with the other two Eremochloa species, is closely related to Mnesithea helferi within the subtribe Rottboelliinae. These findings will be beneficial for the classification and identification of the Eremochloa taxa, phylogenetic resolution, novel gene discovery, and functional genomic studies for the genus Eremochloa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiomics Helps Crop Improvement and Food Security)
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14 pages, 13539 KiB  
Article
Anticancer Effect by Combined Treatment of Artemisia annua L. Polyphenols and Docetaxel in DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells and HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells
by Eun Joo Jung, Hye Jung Kim, Sung Chul Shin, Gon Sup Kim, Jin-Myung Jung, Soon Chan Hong, Ky Hyun Chung, Choong Won Kim and Won Sup Lee
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1621-1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020105 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Docetaxel (DTX), a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel (taxol), is known to exert potent anticancer activity in various cancer cells by suppressing normal microtubule dynamics. In this study, we examined how the anticancer effect of DTX is regulated by polyphenols extracted from Korean Artemisia [...] Read more.
Docetaxel (DTX), a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel (taxol), is known to exert potent anticancer activity in various cancer cells by suppressing normal microtubule dynamics. In this study, we examined how the anticancer effect of DTX is regulated by polyphenols extracted from Korean Artemisia annua L. (pKAL) in DU145 prostate cancer cells (mutant p53) and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells (wild-type p53). Here, we show that the anticancer effect of DTX was enhanced more significantly by pKAL in HCT116 cells than in DU145 cells via phase-contrast microscopy, CCK-8 assay, Western blot, and flow cytometric analysis of annexin V/propidium iodide-stained cells. Notably, mutant p53 was slightly downregulated by single treatment of pKAL or DTX in DU145 cells, whereas wild-type p53 was significantly upregulated by pKAL or DTX in HCT116 cells. Moreover, the enhanced anticancer effect of DTX by pKAL in HCT116 cells was significantly associated with the suppression of DTX-induced p53 upregulation, increase of DTX-induced phospho-p38, and decrease of DTX-regulated cyclin A, cyclin B1, AKT, caspase-8, PARP1, GM130, NF-κB p65, and LDHA, leading to the increased apoptotic cell death and plasma membrane permeability. Our results suggest that pKAL could effectively improve the anticancer effect of DTX-containing chemotherapy used to treat various cancers expressing wild-type p53. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals and Cancer, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 2374 KiB  
Article
MRAP2 Inhibits β-Arrestin-2 Recruitment to the Prokineticin Receptor 2
by Roberta Lattanzi, Ida Casella, Maria Rosaria Fullone, Daniela Maftei, Martina Vincenzi and Rossella Miele
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1607-1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020104 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) is a membrane protein that binds multiple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including prokineticin receptors. These GPCRs are expressed both centrally and peripherally, and their endogenous ligands are prokineticin 1 (PK1) [...] Read more.
Melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) is a membrane protein that binds multiple G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the control of energy homeostasis, including prokineticin receptors. These GPCRs are expressed both centrally and peripherally, and their endogenous ligands are prokineticin 1 (PK1) and prokineticin 2 (PK2). PKRs couple all G-protein subtypes, such as Gαq/11, Gαs, and Gαi, and recruit β-arrestins upon PK2 stimulation, although the interaction between PKR2 and β-arrestins does not trigger receptor internalisation. MRAP2 inhibits the anorexigenic effect of PK2 by binding PKR1 and PKR2. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of MRAP2 in modulating PKR2-induced β-arrestin-2 recruitment and β-arrestin-mediated signalling. This study could allow the identification of new specific targets for potential new drugs useful for the treatment of the various pathologies correlated with prokineticin, in particular, obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Current Issues in Molecular Biology)
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14 pages, 4506 KiB  
Article
Plastoquinone-Derivative SkQ1 Improved the Biliary Intraepithelial Neoplasia during Liver Fluke Infection
by Oxana Zaparina, Anna Kovner, Viktoria Petrova, Nataliya Kolosova, Viatcheslav Mordvinov and Maria Pakharukova
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1593-1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020103 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Carcinogenic food-borne liver fluke infections are a serious epidemiological threat worldwide. The major complications of Opisthorchis felineus infection are chronic inflammation and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Although evidence has accumulated that increased reactive oxygen species production is observed in liver fluke infection, a direct [...] Read more.
Carcinogenic food-borne liver fluke infections are a serious epidemiological threat worldwide. The major complications of Opisthorchis felineus infection are chronic inflammation and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Although evidence has accumulated that increased reactive oxygen species production is observed in liver fluke infection, a direct relationship between the oxidative stress and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia has not been shown. Quinones and SkQ1, a derivative of plastoquinone, have been demonstrated to be cytoprotective in numerous liver injuries due to their potent antioxidant properties. This study is aimed to assess the level of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia in O. felineus-infected hamsters after treatment with mitochondria-targeted SkQ1. SkQ1 significantly reduced the biliary intraepithelial neoplasia, which was accompanied by a decrease in lipid and DNA oxidation byproducts, mRNA expression and level of proteins associated with inflammation (TNF-α, CD68) and fibrogenesis (CK7, αSMA), and was also associated with an activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Thus, a direct relationship was found between oxidative stress and the severity of biliary intraepithelial neoplasia in O. felineus-infected hamsters. The hepatoprotective effect of plastoquinone-derivative SkQ1 was established; therefore, this compound is a promising agent in complex therapy in the treatment of opisthorchiasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Oxidative Stress and Health)
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14 pages, 3162 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Experimental Corrosive Esophageal Burn Injury
by Dilek Aygün Keşim, Fırat Aşır, Hayat Ayaz and Tuğcan Korak
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1579-1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020102 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect of Ellagic acid (EA) on wound healing in sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-induced corrosive esophageal burn injury. The interaction networks and functional annotations were conducted using Cytoscape software. A total of 24 Wistar albino rats were divided [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect of Ellagic acid (EA) on wound healing in sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-induced corrosive esophageal burn injury. The interaction networks and functional annotations were conducted using Cytoscape software. A total of 24 Wistar albino rats were divided into control, corrosive esophageal burn (CEB) and CEB + EA groups. Burn injury was created by 20% NaOH and 30 mg/kg EA was per oral administered to rats. At the end of the 28-day experimental period, Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured. Esophageal tissue samples were processed for histological staining. The EA–target interaction network was revealed to be involved in regulating crucial cellular mechanisms for burn wound healing, with epidermal growth factor (EGF) identified as a central mediator. An increase in animal weight in the CEB + EA group was observed in the EA-treated group after CEB injury. Burn injury increased MDA content, but EA treatment decreased its level after CEB injury. Stenosis index, collagen degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis levels were increased after CEB injury. EA treatment improved histopathology in the CEB + EA group compared to the CEB group. The expression of EGF was decreased in the CEB group but upregulated in the EA-treated group, suggesting a potential involvement of EA in cellular processes and tissue regeneration. EA, through its antioxidative and tissue regenerative properties, significantly contributes to alleviating the adverse effects of CEB injury, promoting wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Bioactives in Inflammation)
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12 pages, 1323 KiB  
Article
Associations between Sperm Epigenetic Age and Semen Parameters: An Evaluation of Clinical and Non-Clinical Cohorts
by Savni Sawant, Oladele A. Oluwayiose, Karolina Nowak, DruAnne L. Maxwell, Emily Houle, Amanda L. Paskavitz, Hachem Saddiki, Ricardo P. Bertolla and J. Richard Pilsner
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1567-1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020101 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The well-documented relationship between chronological age and the sperm methylome has allowed for the construction of epigenetic clocks that estimate the biological age of sperm based on DNA methylation, which we previously termed sperm epigenetic age (SEA). Our lab demonstrated that SEA is [...] Read more.
The well-documented relationship between chronological age and the sperm methylome has allowed for the construction of epigenetic clocks that estimate the biological age of sperm based on DNA methylation, which we previously termed sperm epigenetic age (SEA). Our lab demonstrated that SEA is positively associated with the time taken to achieve pregnancy; however, its relationship with semen parameters is unknown. A total of 379 men from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and Environment (LIFE) study, a non-clinical cohort, and 192 men seeking fertility treatment from the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study (SEEDS) were included in the study. Semen analyses were conducted for both cohorts, and SEA was previously generated using a machine learning algorithm and DNA methylation array data. Association analyses were conducted via multivariable linear regression models adjusting for BMI and smoking status. We found that SEA was not associated with standard semen characteristics in SEEDS and LIFE cohorts. However, SEA was significantly associated with higher sperm head length and perimeter, the presence of pyriform and tapered sperm, and lower sperm elongation factor in the LIFE study (p < 0.05). Based on our results, SEA is mostly associated with defects in sperm head morphological factors that are less commonly evaluated during male infertility assessments. SEA shows promise to be an independent biomarker of sperm quality to assess male fecundity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Germ Cell Development)
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11 pages, 4252 KiB  
Communication
The Role of Rv1476 in Regulating Stress Response and Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
by Aikebaier Reheman, Yifan Wang, Huaiyuan Cai, Pingyang Wei, Gang Cao and Xi Chen
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1556-1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020100 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is related to many factors, including intracellular survival, cell wall permeability, and cell envelope proteins. However, the biological function of the M. tuberculosis membrane protein Rv1476 remains unclear. To investigate the potential role played [...] Read more.
The virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) is related to many factors, including intracellular survival, cell wall permeability, and cell envelope proteins. However, the biological function of the M. tuberculosis membrane protein Rv1476 remains unclear. To investigate the potential role played by Rv1476, we constructed an Rv1476 overexpression strain and found that overexpression of Rv1476 enhanced the intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis, while having no impact on the growth rate in vitro. Stress experiments demonstrated that the Rv1476 overexpression strain displayed increased susceptibility to different stresses compared to the wild-type strain. Transcriptome analysis showed that Rv1476 overexpression causes changes in the transcriptome of THP-1 cells, and differential genes are mainly enriched in cell proliferation, fatty acid degradation, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, and immune response pathways. Rv1476 overexpression inhibited the expression of some anti-tuberculosis-related genes, such as CCL1, IL15, IL16, ISG15, GBP5, IL23, ATG2A, IFNβ, and CSF3. Altogether, we conclude that Rv1476 may play a critical role for M. tuberculosis in macrophage survival. Full article
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26 pages, 5705 KiB  
Article
Protective Potential of a Botanical-Based Supplement Ingredient against the Impact of Environmental Pollution on Cutaneous and Cardiopulmonary Systems: Preclinical Study
by Laurent Peno-Mazzarino, Nikita Radionov, Marián Merino, Sonia González, José L. Mullor, Jonathan Jones and Nuria Caturla
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1530-1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020099 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Air pollution is a growing threat to human health. Airborne pollution effects on respiratory, cardiovascular and skin health are well-established. The main mechanisms of air-pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study evaluates the potential of a polyphenol-enriched food supplement [...] Read more.
Air pollution is a growing threat to human health. Airborne pollution effects on respiratory, cardiovascular and skin health are well-established. The main mechanisms of air-pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study evaluates the potential of a polyphenol-enriched food supplement ingredient comprising Lippia citriodora, Olea europaea, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Sophora japonica extracts in mitigating the adverse effects of environmental pollution on skin and cardiopulmonary systems. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies were used to assess the blend’s effects against pollution-induced damage. In these studies, the botanical blend was found to reduce lipid peroxidation, inflammation (by reducing IL-1α), and metabolic alterations (by regulating MT-1H, AhR, and Nrf2 expression) in human skin explants exposed to a mixture of pollutants. Similar results were also observed in keratinocytes exposed to urban dust. Moreover, the ingredient significantly reduced pollutant-induced ROS production in human endothelial cells and lung fibroblasts, while downregulating the expression of apoptotic genes (bcl-2 and bax) in lung fibroblasts. Additionally, the blend counteracted the effect of urban dust on the heart rate in zebrafish embryos. These results support the potential use of this supplement as an adjuvant method to reduce the impact of environmental pollution on the skin, lungs, and cardiovascular tissues. Full article
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14 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Synergistically Enhanced Arecoline-Induced Cytotoxicity by Redirecting Cycle Arrest to Apoptosis
by Li-Jane Shih, Po-Chi Hsu, Chih-Pin Chuu, Hao-Ai Shui, Chien-Chih Yeh, Yueh-Chung Chen and Yung-Hsi Kao
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1516-1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020098 - 14 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Carcinogens, such as arecoline, play a crucial role in cancer progression and continuous gene mutations by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants can reduce ROS levels and potentially prevent cancer progression but may paradoxically enhance the survival of cancer cells. This study investigated [...] Read more.
Carcinogens, such as arecoline, play a crucial role in cancer progression and continuous gene mutations by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants can reduce ROS levels and potentially prevent cancer progression but may paradoxically enhance the survival of cancer cells. This study investigated whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an antioxidant from green tea, could resolve this paradox. Prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cell line) were cultured and treated with arecoline combined with NAC (N-acetylcysteine) or EGCG; the combined effects on intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were examined using the MTT and DCFDA assays, respectively. In addition, apoptosis, cell cycle, and protein expression were investigated using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Our results showed that EGCG, similar to NAC (N-acetylcysteine), reduced the intracellular ROS levels, which were elevated by arecoline. Moreover, EGCG not only caused cell cycle arrest but also facilitated cell apoptosis in arecoline-treated cells in a synergistic manner. These were evidenced by elevated levels of cyclin B1 and p27, and increased fragmentation of procaspase-3, PARP, and DNA. Our findings highlight the potential use of EGCG for cancer prevention and therapy. Full article
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13 pages, 2546 KiB  
Communication
Variability in Leaf Color Induced by Chlorophyll Deficiency: Transcriptional Changes in Bamboo Leaves
by Peng-Kai Zhu, Mei-Yin Zeng, Yu-Han Lin, Yu Tang, Tian-You He, Yu-Shan Zheng and Ling-Yan Chen
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1503-1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020097 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The diversity of leaf characteristics, particularly leaf color, underscores a pivotal area of inquiry within plant science. The synthesis and functionality of chlorophyll, crucial for photosynthesis, largely dictate leaf coloration, with varying concentrations imparting different shades of green. Complex gene interactions regulate the [...] Read more.
The diversity of leaf characteristics, particularly leaf color, underscores a pivotal area of inquiry within plant science. The synthesis and functionality of chlorophyll, crucial for photosynthesis, largely dictate leaf coloration, with varying concentrations imparting different shades of green. Complex gene interactions regulate the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll, and disruptions in these pathways can result in abnormal chlorophyll production, thereby affecting leaf pigmentation. This study focuses on Bambusa multiplex f. silverstripe, a natural variant distinguished by a spectrum of leaf colors, such as green, white, and green–white, attributed to genetic variations influencing gene expression. By examining the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying chlorophyll anomalies and genetic factors in Silverstripe, this research sheds light on the intricate gene interactions and regulatory networks that contribute to leaf color diversity. The investigation includes the measurement of photosynthetic pigments and nutrient concentrations across different leaf color types, alongside transcriptomic analyses for identifying differentially expressed genes. The role of key genes in pathways such as ALA biosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism is explored, offering critical insights for advancing research and plant breeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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18 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Glial Activation and Subsequent Reduction in White Matter Damage through Supplementation with a Combined Extract of Wheat Bran, Citrus Peel, and Jujube in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia
by Ki Hong Kim, Sun-Ha Lim, Jeong Hyun Hwang and Jongwon Lee
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1485-1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020096 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 735
Abstract
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. In our previous studies, we showed that wheat bran extract (WBE) reduced white matter damage in a rat VaD model and improved memory in a human clinical trial. However, [...] Read more.
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. In our previous studies, we showed that wheat bran extract (WBE) reduced white matter damage in a rat VaD model and improved memory in a human clinical trial. However, starch gelatinization made the large-scale preparation of WBE difficult. To simplify the manufacturing process and increase efficacy, we attempted to find a decoction containing an optimum ratio of wheat bran, sliced citrus peel, and sliced jujube (WCJ). To find an optimal ratio, the cell survival of C6 (rat glioma) cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) was measured, and apoptosis was assessed. To confirm the efficacies of the optimized WCJ for VaD, pupillary light reflex, white matter damage, and the activation of astrocytes and microglia were assessed in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causing chronic hypoperfusion. Using a combination of both searching the literature and cell survival experiments, we chose 6:2:1 as the optimal ratio of wheat bran to sliced citrus peel to sliced jujube to prepare WCJ. We showed that phytic acid contained only in wheat bran can be used as an indicator component for the quality control of WCJ. We observed in vitro that the WCJ treatment improved cell survival by reducing apoptosis through an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In the BCCAO experiments, the WCJ-supplemented diet prevented astrocytic and microglial activation, mitigated myelin damage in the corpus callosum and optic tract, and, consequently, improved pupillary light reflex at dosages over 100 mg/kg/day. The results suggest that the consumption of WCJ can prevent VaD by reducing white matter damage, and WCJ can be developed as a safe, herbal medicine to prevent VaD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry and Medicinal Chemistry)
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18 pages, 3450 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of TERT Promoter Mutations in Orbital Solitary Fibrous Tumors
by David Sinan Koca, Vladimir Kolpakov, Jana Ihlow, Maximilian von Laffert, Katharina Erb-Eigner, Hermann Herbst, Karen Kriese, Leonille Schweizer and Eckart Bertelmann
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1467-1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020095 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
The orbital manifestation of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is exceptionally rare and poses specific challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Its rather exceptional behavior among all SFTs comprises a high tendency towards local recurrence, but it rarely culminates in metastatic disease. This raises [...] Read more.
The orbital manifestation of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is exceptionally rare and poses specific challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Its rather exceptional behavior among all SFTs comprises a high tendency towards local recurrence, but it rarely culminates in metastatic disease. This raises the question of prognostic factors in orbital SFTs (oSFTs). Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-promoter mutations have previously been linked to an unfavorable prognosis in SFTs of other locations. We analyzed the prevalence of TERT promoter mutations of SFTs in the orbital compartment. We performed a retrospective, descriptive clinico-histopathological analysis of nine cases of oSFTs between the years of 2017 and 2021. A TERT promoter mutation was present in one case, which was classified with intermediate metastatic risk. Local recurrence or progress occurred in six cases after primary resection; no distant metastases were reported. Multimodal imaging repeatedly showed particular morphologic patterns, including tubular vascular structures and ADC reduction. The prevalence of the TERT promoter mutation in oSFT was 11%, which is similar to the prevalence of extra-meningeal SFTs of the head and neck and lower than that in other extra-meningeal compartments. In the present study, the TERT promoter mutation in oSFT manifested in a case with an unfavorable prognosis, comprising aggressive local tumor growth, local recurrence, and eye loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Mechanisms in Human Diseases)
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16 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Functions of Mutant p53 through TP53 Knockout in HaCaT Keratinocytes
by Daniil Romashin, Alexander Rusanov, Viktoriia Arzumanian, Alexandra Varshaver, Ekaterina Poverennaya, Igor Vakhrushev, Alexander Netrusov and Nataliya Luzgina
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1451-1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020094 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Approximately 50% of tumors carry mutations in TP53; thus, evaluation of the features of mutant p53 is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying cell transformation and tumor progression. HaCaT keratinocytes represent a valuable model for research in this area since they are [...] Read more.
Approximately 50% of tumors carry mutations in TP53; thus, evaluation of the features of mutant p53 is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying cell transformation and tumor progression. HaCaT keratinocytes represent a valuable model for research in this area since they are considered normal, although they bear two gain-of-function mutations in TP53. In the present study, transcriptomic and proteomic profiling were employed to examine the functions of mutant p53 and to investigate the impact of its complete abolishment. Our findings indicate that CRISPR-mediated TP53 knockout results in significant changes at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. The knockout of TP53 significantly increased the migration rate and altered the expression of genes associated with invasion, migration, and EMT but suppressed the epidermal differentiation program. These outcomes suggest that, despite being dysfunctional, p53 may still possess oncosuppressive functions. However, despite being considered normal keratinocytes, HaCaT cells exhibit oncogenic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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14 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
Effect of YC-1102 on the Improvement of Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
by Hwa-Young Yu, Kyoung Kon Kim, Sin Hwa Baek, Cho I Park, Hye Jin Jeon, Ae Ri Song, Hyun-Je Park, Il Bum Park, Jong Soo Kang, Jung Min Kim, Tae Woo Kim, Sun Min Jang, Joo Young Cha and Junghyun Kim
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1437-1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020093 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for metabolic diseases worldwide. This study examined the effects of YC-1102, an extract derived from the roots of Rosa multiflora, on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. In vivo experiments involved the [...] Read more.
Obesity is one of the major risk factors for metabolic diseases worldwide. This study examined the effects of YC-1102, an extract derived from the roots of Rosa multiflora, on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. In vivo experiments involved the oral administration of YC-1102 (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight) daily to mice for eight weeks. YC-1102 was found to downregulate the expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and upregulating the expression of PGC-1α for energy metabolism to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. It has been shown that daily administration of YC-1102 to mice receiving a HFD prevented an increase in body weight and the accumulation of body fat. YC-1102 administration also reduced TG, TC, and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as glucose and leptin levels, and increased adiponectin levels, thus effectively inhibiting the metabolism of lipids. YC-1102-treated mice showed significant reductions in the mRNA expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα. The levels of PGC-1α involved in energy metabolism increased significantly in the YC-1102-treated mice when compared to the HFD-treated mice. According to the findings of this study, YC-1102 has a dual mechanism that reduces transcription factors that promote the differentiation of adipocytes and increases transcription factors that promote energy consumption. Full article
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13 pages, 1254 KiB  
Review
Association between Donor Age and Osteogenic Potential of Human Adipose Stem Cells in Bone Tissue Engineering
by Md Abdus Sattar, Lara F. Lingens, Vincent G. J. Guillaume, Rebekka Goetzl, Justus P. Beier and Tim Ruhl
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1424-1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020092 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) have multilineage differentiation capacity and hold great potential for regenerative medicine. Compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), ASCs are easier to isolate from abundant sources with significantly higher yields. It is generally accepted that bmMSCs show age-related [...] Read more.
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) have multilineage differentiation capacity and hold great potential for regenerative medicine. Compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), ASCs are easier to isolate from abundant sources with significantly higher yields. It is generally accepted that bmMSCs show age-related changes in their proliferation and differentiation potentials, whereas this aspect is still controversial in the case of ASCs. In this review, we evaluated the existing data on the effect of donor age on the osteogenic potential of human ASCs. Overall, a poor agreement has been achieved because of inconsistent findings in the previous studies. Finally, we attempted to delineate the possible reasons behind the lack of agreements reported in the literature. ASCs represent a heterogeneous cell population, and the osteogenic potential of ASCs can be influenced by donor-related factors such as age, but also gender, lifestyle, and the underlying health and metabolic state of donors. Furthermore, future studies should consider experimental factors in in vitro conditions, including passaging, cryopreservation, culture conditions, variations in differentiation protocols, and readout methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Stem Cells)
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11 pages, 1939 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review of Preclinical In Vitro Studies Investigating microRNAs in Myocarditis
by Olga Grodzka, Grzegorz Procyk and Małgorzata Wrzosek
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1413-1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020091 - 06 Feb 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
According to the World Health Organization’s statement, myocarditis is an inflammatory myocardium disease. Although an endometrial biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard, it is an invasive procedure, and thus, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has become more widely used and is called a non-invasive [...] Read more.
According to the World Health Organization’s statement, myocarditis is an inflammatory myocardium disease. Although an endometrial biopsy remains the diagnostic gold standard, it is an invasive procedure, and thus, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has become more widely used and is called a non-invasive diagnostic gold standard. Myocarditis treatment is challenging, with primarily symptomatic therapies. An increasing number of studies are searching for novel diagnostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that decrease gene expression by inhibiting the translation or promoting the degradation of complementary mRNAs. Their role in different fields of medicine has been recently extensively studied. This review discusses all relevant preclinical in vitro studies regarding microRNAs in myocarditis. We searched the PubMed database, and after excluding unsuitable studies and clinical and preclinical in vivo trials, we included and discussed 22 preclinical in vitro studies in this narrative review. Several microRNAs presented altered levels in myocarditis patients in comparison to healthy controls. Moreover, microRNAs influenced inflammation, cell apoptosis, and viral replication. Finally, microRNAs were also found to determine the level of myocardial damage. Further studies may show the vital role of microRNAs as novel therapeutic agents or diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in myocarditis management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Review Papers in Molecular Biology 2024)
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15 pages, 3407 KiB  
Article
Modulating Golgi Stress Signaling Ameliorates Cell Morphological Phenotypes Induced by CHMP2B with Frontotemporal Dementia-Associated p.Asp148Tyr
by Shoya Fukatsu, Maho Okawa, Miyu Okabe, Mizuka Cho, Mikinori Isogai, Takanori Yokoi, Remina Shirai, Hiroaki Oizumi, Masahiro Yamamoto, Katsuya Ohbuchi, Yuki Miyamoto and Junji Yamauchi
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1398-1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020090 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Some charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) mutations are associated with autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 7 (FTDALS7). The main aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between the expression of mutated CHMP2B protein displaying FTD symptoms [...] Read more.
Some charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) mutations are associated with autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 7 (FTDALS7). The main aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between the expression of mutated CHMP2B protein displaying FTD symptoms and defective neuronal differentiation. First, we illustrate that the expression of CHMP2B with the Asp148Tyr (D148Y) mutation, which preferentially displays FTD phenotypes, blunts neurite process elongation in rat primary cortical neurons. Similar results were observed in the N1E-115 cell line, a model that undergoes neurite elongation. Second, these effects were also accompanied by changes in neuronal differentiation marker protein expression. Third, wild-type CHMP2B protein was indeed localized in the endosomal sorting complexes required to transport (ESCRT)-like structures throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast, CHMP2B with the D148Y mutation exhibited aggregation-like structures and accumulated in the Golgi body. Fourth, among currently known Golgi stress regulators, the expression levels of Hsp47, which has protective effects on the Golgi body, were decreased in cells expressing CHMP2B with the D148Y mutation. Fifth, Arf4, another Golgi stress-signaling molecule, was increased in mutant-expressing cells. Finally, when transfecting Hsp47 or knocking down Arf4 with small interfering (si)RNA, cellular phenotypes in mutant-expressing cells were recovered. These results suggest that CHMP2B with the D148Y mutation, acting through Golgi stress signaling, is negatively involved in the regulation of neuronal cell morphological differentiation, providing evidence that a molecule controlling Golgi stress may be one of the potential FTD therapeutic targets at the molecular and cellular levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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15 pages, 722 KiB  
Review
Posterior Polar Annular Choroidal Dystrophy: Genetic Insights and Differential Diagnosis in Inherited Retinal Diseases
by Francesco Ruggeri, Chiara Ciancimino, Antonio Guillot, Daniele Fumi, Federico Di Tizio, Serena Fragiotta and Solmaz Abdolrahimzadeh
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1383-1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020089 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Posterior polar annular choroidal dystrophy (PPACD) is a rare ocular disorder and presents as symmetric degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the underlying choriocapillaris, encircling the retinal vascular arcades and optic disc. This condition distinctively preserves the foveal region, optic disc, [...] Read more.
Posterior polar annular choroidal dystrophy (PPACD) is a rare ocular disorder and presents as symmetric degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the underlying choriocapillaris, encircling the retinal vascular arcades and optic disc. This condition distinctively preserves the foveal region, optic disc, and the outermost regions of the retina. Despite its distinct clinical presentation, due to the infrequency of its occurrence and the limited number of reported cases, the pathophysiology, and the genetic foundations of PPACD are still largely uncharted. This review aims to bridge this knowledge gap by investigating potential genetic contributors to PPACD, assessing current findings, and identifying genes that warrant further study. Emphasis is also placed on the crucial role of multimodal imaging in diagnosing PPACD, highlighting its importance in understanding disease pathophysiology. By analyzing existing case reports and drawing comparisons with similar retinal disorders, this paper endeavors to delineate the possible genetic correlations in PPACD, providing a foundation for future genetic research and the development of targeted diagnostic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Medicine)
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9 pages, 624 KiB  
Brief Report
Association of KRAS G12C Status with Age at Onset of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
by Marcelo Sunagua Aruquipa, Renata D’Alpino Peixoto, Alexandre Jacome, Fernanda Cesar, Vinicius Lorandi and Rodrigo Dienstmann
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1374-1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020088 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 796
Abstract
The association of age at the onset of CRC and the prevalence of a KRAS G12C mutation is unclear. A retrospective, multicenter study evaluating metastatic CRC patients from January 2019 to July 2023, treated at the Oncoclinicas units and tested for tissue based [...] Read more.
The association of age at the onset of CRC and the prevalence of a KRAS G12C mutation is unclear. A retrospective, multicenter study evaluating metastatic CRC patients from January 2019 to July 2023, treated at the Oncoclinicas units and tested for tissue based KRAS/NRAS and BRAF mutations in a centralized genomics lab. A mismatch repair (MMR) status was retrieved from different labs and electronic medical records, as were patient demographics (age, gender) and tumor sidedness. The chi-square test was used to examine the association between clinical and molecular variables, with p value < 0.05 being statistically significant. A total of 858 cases were included. The median age was 63.7 years (range 22–95) and 17.4% were less than 50 years old at the diagnosis of metastatic CRC. Male patients represented 50.3% of the population. The sidedness distribution was as follows: left side 59.2%, right side 36.8% and not specified 4%. The prevalence of the KRAS mutation was 49.4% and the NRAS mutation was 3.9%. Among KRAS mutated tumors, the most common variants were G12V (27.6%) and G12D (23.5%), while KRAS G12C was less frequent (6.4%), which represented 3.1% of the overall population. The BRAF mutant cases were 7.3% and most commonly V600E. Only five (<1%) non-V600E mutations were detected. MSI-high or dMMR was present in 14 cases (1.6%). In the age-stratified analysis, left-sidedness (p < 0.001) and a KRAS G12C mutation (p = 0.046) were associated with a younger age (<50 years). In the sidedness-stratified analysis, a BRAF mutation (p = 0.001) and MSI-high/dMMR status (p = 0.009) were more common in right-sided tumors. Our data suggest that KRAS G12C mutations are more frequent in early-onset metastatic CRC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest cohort in the Latin American population with metastatic CRC reporting RAS, BRAF and MSI/MMR status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Medicine)
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14 pages, 991 KiB  
Article
Role of Optimization in RNA–Protein-Binding Prediction
by Shrooq Alsenan, Isra Al-Turaiki, Mashael Aldayel and Mohamed Tounsi
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1360-1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020087 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in regulating biological processes, such as gene regulation. Understanding their behaviors, for example, their binding site, can be helpful in understanding RBP-related diseases. Studies have focused on predicting RNA binding by means of machine learning algorithms [...] Read more.
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play an important role in regulating biological processes, such as gene regulation. Understanding their behaviors, for example, their binding site, can be helpful in understanding RBP-related diseases. Studies have focused on predicting RNA binding by means of machine learning algorithms including deep convolutional neural network models. One of the integral parts of modeling deep learning is achieving optimal hyperparameter tuning and minimizing a loss function using optimization algorithms. In this paper, we investigate the role of optimization in the RBP classification problem using the CLIP-Seq 21 dataset. Three optimization methods are employed on the RNA–protein binding CNN prediction model; namely, grid search, random search, and Bayesian optimizer. The empirical results show an AUC of 94.42%, 93.78%, 93.23% and 92.68% on the ELAVL1C, ELAVL1B, ELAVL1A, and HNRNPC datasets, respectively, and a mean AUC of 85.30 on 24 datasets. This paper’s findings provide evidence on the role of optimizers in improving the performance of RNA–protein binding prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Predicting Drug Targets Using Bioinformatics Methods)
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12 pages, 1626 KiB  
Article
A Smooth Muscle Cell-Based Ferroptosis Model to Evaluate Iron-Chelating Molecules for Cardiovascular Disease Treatment
by Sarah El Hajj, Laetitia Canabady-Rochelle, Isabelle Fries-Raeth and Caroline Gaucher
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1348-1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020086 - 04 Feb 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Dysregulation of iron homeostasis causes iron-mediated cell death, recently described as ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is reported in many chronic diseases, such as hepatic cancer, renal, and cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atherosclerosis). However, there is a notable scarcity of research studies in the existing literature [...] Read more.
Dysregulation of iron homeostasis causes iron-mediated cell death, recently described as ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is reported in many chronic diseases, such as hepatic cancer, renal, and cardiovascular diseases (heart failure, atherosclerosis). However, there is a notable scarcity of research studies in the existing literature that explore treatments capable of preventing ferroptosis. Additionally, as far as the author is aware, there is currently no established model for studying ferroptosis within cardiovascular cells, which would be essential for assessing metal-chelating molecules with the potential ability to inhibit ferroptosis and their application in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, a smooth muscle cell-based ferroptosis model is developed upon the inhibition of the system Xc transporter by erastin associated or not with Fe(III) overload, and its rescue upon the introduction of well-known iron chelators, deferoxamine and deferiprone. We showed that erastin alone decreased the intracellular concentration of glutathione (GSH) without affecting peroxidized lipid concentrations. Erastin with ferric citrate was able to decrease intracellular GSH and induce lipid peroxidation after overnight incubation. Only deferiprone was able to rescue the cells from ferroptosis by decreasing lipid peroxidation via iron ion chelation in a 3:1 molar ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Molecular Mechanisms in Human Diseases)
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13 pages, 2303 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Stability Assessment of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Normalization in Bombus terrestris
by Kathannan Sankar, Kyeong-Yong Lee, Kyu-Won Kwak, Su-Jin Lee and Young-Bo Lee
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1335-1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020085 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Bumblebees (B. terrestris) play a crucial role as highly efficient biological agents in commercial pollination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing their adaptation to diverse seasonal environments may pave the way for effective management strategies in the future. With the burgeoning advancement [...] Read more.
Bumblebees (B. terrestris) play a crucial role as highly efficient biological agents in commercial pollination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing their adaptation to diverse seasonal environments may pave the way for effective management strategies in the future. With the burgeoning advancement in post-genetic studies focusing on B. terrestris, there is a critical need to normalize quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) data using suitable reference genes. To address this necessity, we employed RefFinder, a software-based tool, to assess the suitability of several candidate endogenous control genes, including actin (ACT), arginine kinase (AK), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), phospholipase (PLA2), and ribosomal proteins (S18, S28). These genes were evaluated for their efficacy as biological endogenous controls by examining their expression patterns across various environmental conditions corresponding to different seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter) and tissues (ovary, fat body, thorax, head) in bumblebees. Moreover, the study investigated the significance of selecting appropriate reference genes for three key genes involved in the juvenile hormone (JH) signaling pathways: Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), methyl farnesoate epoxidase (MFE), and Vitellogenin (Vg). Our research identifies specific genes suitable for normalization in B. terrestris, thereby offering valuable insights into gene expression and functional metabolic genetics under varying seasonal conditions. This catalog of reference genes will serve as a valuable resource for future research endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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17 pages, 3066 KiB  
Review
A Concise Review of Biomolecule Visualization
by Hui Li and Xinru Wei
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1318-1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020084 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 795
Abstract
The structural characteristics of biomolecules are a major focus in the field of structural biology. Molecular visualization plays a crucial role in displaying structural information in an intuitive manner, aiding in the understanding of molecular properties. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of [...] Read more.
The structural characteristics of biomolecules are a major focus in the field of structural biology. Molecular visualization plays a crucial role in displaying structural information in an intuitive manner, aiding in the understanding of molecular properties. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of core concepts, key techniques, and tools in molecular visualization. Additionally, it presents the latest research findings to uncover emerging trends and highlights the challenges and potential directions for the development of the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics and Systems Biology)
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10 pages, 12264 KiB  
Communication
Adipose Tissue Macrophage Polarization Is Altered during Recovery after Exercise: A Large-Scale Flow Cytometric Study
by Kyung-Wan Baek, Ji Hyun Kim, Hak Sun Yu and Ji-Seok Kim
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1308-1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020083 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 625
Abstract
We performed a large-scale flow cytometric analysis to determine whether M1 macrophage (M1Ø) and M2 macrophage (M2Ø) polarization in white adipose tissue (WAT) was altered immediately after exercise. Additionally, we comprehensively investigated the effects of obesity, exercise intensity, and recovery time on macrophage [...] Read more.
We performed a large-scale flow cytometric analysis to determine whether M1 macrophage (M1Ø) and M2 macrophage (M2Ø) polarization in white adipose tissue (WAT) was altered immediately after exercise. Additionally, we comprehensively investigated the effects of obesity, exercise intensity, and recovery time on macrophage polarization in WAT. A single exercise bout of various intensities (ND, non-exercise control; -LIE, low-intensity exercise; -MIE, mid-intensity exercise; -HIE, high-intensity exercise) was performed by normal mice (ND) and obese mice (HFD). To confirm differences in M1Ø/M2Ø polarization in WAT based on the recovery time after a single exercise bout, WAT was acquired at 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise (total n = 168, 7 mice × 4 groups × 2 diets × 3 recovery time). The harvested WAT was immediately analyzed by flow cytometry, and macrophages were fluorescently labeled using F4/80, as well as M1Ø with CD11c and M2Øs with CD206. After a single bout of exercise, the M2Ø/M1Ø polarization ratio of WAT increases in both normal and obese mice, but differences vary depending on recovery time and intensity. Regardless of obesity, our findings showed that there could be a transient increase in M1Ø in WAT over a short recovery time (24 h) post-exercise (in ND-MIE, ND-HIE, and HFD-HIE). Furthermore, it was observed that the greater the exercise intensity in obese mice, the more effective the induction of M2Ø polarization immediately after exercise, as well as the maintenance of high M2Ø polarization, even after a prolonged recovery time. Full article
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17 pages, 9619 KiB  
Article
Nicotinamide Riboside Regulates Chemotaxis to Decrease Inflammation and Ameliorate Functional Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury in Mice
by Yan Li, Chunjia Zhang, Zihan Li, Fan Bai, Yingli Jing, Han Ke, Shuangyue Zhang, Yitong Yan and Yan Yu
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1291-1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020082 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Changes in intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels have been observed in various disease states. A decrease in NAD+ levels has been noted following spinal cord injury (SCI). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) serves as the precursor of NAD+. Previous [...] Read more.
Changes in intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels have been observed in various disease states. A decrease in NAD+ levels has been noted following spinal cord injury (SCI). Nicotinamide riboside (NR) serves as the precursor of NAD+. Previous research has demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and apoptosis-reducing effects of NR supplements. However, it remains unclear whether NR exerts a similar role in mice after SCI. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of NR on these changes in a mouse model of SCI. Four groups were considered: (1) non-SCI without NR (Sham), (2) non-SCI with NR (Sham +NR), (3) SCI without NR (SCI), and (4) SCI with NR (SCI + NR). Female C57BL/6J mice aged 6–8 weeks were intraperitoneally administered with 500 mg/kg/day NR for a duration of one week. The supplementation of NR resulted in a significant elevation of NAD+ levels in the spinal cord tissue of mice after SCI. In comparison to the SCI group, NR supplementation exhibited regulatory effects on the chemotaxis/recruitment of leukocytes, leading to reduced levels of inflammatory factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-22 in the injured area. Moreover, NR supplementation notably enhanced the survival of neurons and synapses within the injured area, ultimately resulting in improved motor functions after SCI. Therefore, our research findings demonstrated that NR supplementation had inhibitory effects on leukocyte chemotaxis, anti-inflammatory effects, and could significantly improve the immune micro-environment after SCI, thereby promoting neuronal survival and ultimately enhancing the recovery of motor functions after SCI. NR supplementation showed promise as a potential clinical treatment strategy for SCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Neuroinflammation)
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10 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Targeted Sequencing in Gastric Cancer: Association with Tumor Molecular Characteristics and FLOT Therapy Effectiveness
by Liudmila V. Spirina, Alexandra V. Avgustinovich, Olga V. Bakina, Sergey G. Afanas’ev, Maxim Yu. Volkov, Sergey V. Vtorushin, Irina V. Kovaleva, Tatyana S. Klyushina and Igor O. Munkuev
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1281-1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020081 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Heterogeneity of gastric cancer (GC) is the main trigger of the disease’s relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate the connections between targeted genes, cancer clinical features, and the effectiveness of FLOT chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients with gastric cancers (GCs) were included [...] Read more.
Heterogeneity of gastric cancer (GC) is the main trigger of the disease’s relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate the connections between targeted genes, cancer clinical features, and the effectiveness of FLOT chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients with gastric cancers (GCs) were included in this study. Tumor-targeted sequencing was conducted, and real-time PCR was used to assess the expression of molecular markers in tumors. Seven patients with stabilization had mutations that were related to their response to therapy and were relevant to the tumor phenotype. Two patients had two mutations. The number of patients with TP53 mutations increased in HER2-positive tumor status. PD-L1-positive cancers had mutations in KRAS, TP53, PIK3CA, PTEN, and ERBB, which resulted in an increase in PD-1 expression. TP53 mutation and PTEN mutation are associated with changes in factors associated with neoangiogenesis. In concusion, patients who did not have aggressive growth markers that were verified by molecular features had the best response to treatment, including complete morphologic regression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
22 pages, 11160 KiB  
Article
Proteome and Peptidome Changes and Zn Concentration in Chicken after In Ovo Stimulation with a Multi-Strain Probiotic and Zn-Gly Chelate: Preliminary Research
by Artur Ciszewski, Łukasz S. Jarosz, Katarzyna Michalak, Agnieszka Marek, Zbigniew Grądzki, Jacek Wawrzykowski, Bartłomiej Szymczak and Anna Rysiak
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1259-1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020080 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine differences in the proteome and peptidome and zinc concentrations in the serum and tissues of chickens supplemented with a multi-strain probiotic and/or zinc glycine chelate in ovo. A total of 1400 fertilized broiler eggs (Ross [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine differences in the proteome and peptidome and zinc concentrations in the serum and tissues of chickens supplemented with a multi-strain probiotic and/or zinc glycine chelate in ovo. A total of 1400 fertilized broiler eggs (Ross × Ross 708) were divided into four groups: a control and experimental groups injected with a multi-strain probiotic, with zinc glycine chelate, and with the multi-strain probiotic and zinc glycine chelate. The proteome and peptidome were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and MALDI—TOF MS, and the zinc concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. We showed that in ovo supplementation with zinc glycine chelate increased the Zn concentration in the serum and yolk sac at 12 h post-hatch. The results of SDS-PAGE and western blot confirmed the presence of Cu/Zn SOD in the liver and in the small and large intestines at 12 h and at 7 days after hatching in all groups. Analysis of the MALDI—TOF MS spectra of chicken tissues showed in all experimental groups the expression of proteins and peptides that regulate immune response, metabolic processes, growth, development, and reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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22 pages, 997 KiB  
Review
Genomic Determinants of Knee Joint Biomechanics: An Exploration into the Molecular Basis of Locomotor Function, a Narrative Review
by Georgian-Longin Iacobescu, Loredana Iacobescu, Mihnea Ioan Gabriel Popa, Razvan-Adrian Covache-Busuioc, Antonio-Daniel Corlatescu and Catalin Cirstoiu
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1237-1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020079 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 914
Abstract
In recent years, the nexus between genetics and biomechanics has garnered significant attention, elucidating the role of genomic determinants in shaping the biomechanical attributes of human joints, specifically the knee. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive exploration of the molecular basis underlying [...] Read more.
In recent years, the nexus between genetics and biomechanics has garnered significant attention, elucidating the role of genomic determinants in shaping the biomechanical attributes of human joints, specifically the knee. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive exploration of the molecular basis underlying knee joint locomotor function. Leveraging advancements in genomic sequencing, we identified specific genetic markers and polymorphisms tied to key biomechanical features of the knee, such as ligament elasticity, meniscal resilience, and cartilage health. Particular attention was devoted to collagen genes like COL1A1 and COL5A1 and their influence on ligamentous strength and injury susceptibility. We further investigated the genetic underpinnings of knee osteoarthritis onset and progression, as well as the potential for personalized rehabilitation strategies tailored to an individual’s genetic profile. We reviewed the impact of genetic factors on knee biomechanics and highlighted the importance of personalized orthopedic interventions. The results hold significant implications for injury prevention, treatment optimization, and the future of regenerative medicine, targeting not only knee joint health but joint health in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Osteoarthritis and Osteoarticular Diseases)
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18 pages, 676 KiB  
Review
Gut–Liver Axis as a Therapeutic Target for Drug-Induced Liver Injury
by Wenjing Tao, Qiwen Fan and Jintao Wei
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1219-1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020078 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a liver disease that remains difficult to predict and diagnose, and the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully clarified. The gut–liver axis refers to the reciprocal interactions between the gut and the liver, and its homeostasis plays [...] Read more.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a liver disease that remains difficult to predict and diagnose, and the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully clarified. The gut–liver axis refers to the reciprocal interactions between the gut and the liver, and its homeostasis plays a prominent role in maintaining liver health. It has been recently reported that patients and animals with DILI have a disrupted gut–liver axis, involving altered gut microbiota composition, increased intestinal permeability and lipopolysaccharide translocation, decreased short-chain fatty acids production, and impaired bile acid metabolism homeostasis. The present review will summarize the evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies about the role of the gut–liver axis in the pathogenesis of DILI. Moreover, we will focus attention on the potential therapeutic strategies for DILI based on improving gut–liver axis function, including herbs and phytochemicals, probiotics, fecal microbial transplantation, postbiotics, bile acids, and Farnesoid X receptor agonists. Full article
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11 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer
by Gi Won Ha, Hong Pil Hwang, Yong Gon Cho and Joonhong Park
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2024, 46(2), 1208-1218; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb46020077 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Gastric cancer (GC) persists as the fourth most prevalent cause of global cancer-related mortality, presenting a challenge due to the scarcity of available therapeutic strategies. Precision medicine is crucial not only in the treatment but also in the management of GC. We performed [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer (GC) persists as the fourth most prevalent cause of global cancer-related mortality, presenting a challenge due to the scarcity of available therapeutic strategies. Precision medicine is crucial not only in the treatment but also in the management of GC. We performed gene panel sequencing with Oncomine focus assay comprising 52 cancer-associated genes and MSI analysis in 100 case-matched gastric cancer cases. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and genetic characteristics was conducted on these genetic results and clinicopathological findings. Upon comparison of clinicopathological characteristics, significant differences between early gastric cancer (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) were observed in tumor location (p = 0.003), Lauren classification (p = 0.015), T stage (p = 0.000), and N stage (p = 0.015). The six most frequently mutated genes were PIK3CA (29%, 10/35), ERBB2 (17%, 6/35), KRAS (14%, 5/35), ALK (6%, 2/35), ESR1 (6%, 2/35), and FGFR3 (6%, 2/35). Regarding genetic variation, there was a tendency for the N stage to be higher in GC patients with mutated genes (p = 0.014). The frequency of mutations in GC patients was statistically significantly higher in AGC (n = 24) compared to EGC (n = 11) (odds ratio, 2.792; 95% confidence interval, 1.113 to 7.007; p = 0.026). Six of the ten GC patients carrying mutated genes and exhibiting MSI were classified into intestinal-type and undifferentiated GC, with the location of the tumor being in the lower-third. Among these patients, five harbored mutated PIK3CA, while the remaining patient had a mutation in ALK. Conclusions: AGC patients more frequently exhibited alterations of PIK3CA, KRAS, and ERBB2 as somatic oncogenic drivers, and displayed a higher prevalence of cumulative genetic events, including increased rates of PIK3CA mutations, enhanced detection of immunotherapy biomarkers, and mutations of the ESR1 gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Pathogenesis Regulation in Cancer, 2nd Edition)
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