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Curr. Issues Mol. Biol., Volume 45, Issue 11 (November 2023) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Biotin–(strept)avidin immunoassays have made a profound impact on the field of modern clinical medicine, making it possible to measure minute quantities of virtually any analyte with high sensitivity and specificity. Their exceptional specificity is attributed to the extremely high affinity of biotin to (strept)avidin. Despite these advantageous features, immunoassays utilizing the biotin–streptavidin system are prone to interference with biotin and anti-streptavidin antibodies. This review presents a general overview and historical perspective of immunoassays, with a focus on the biotin–(strept)avidin system interferences, and mitigations strategies that are applied to minimize false diagnostic results. View this paper
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14 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
gjSOX9 Cloning, Expression, and Comparison with gjSOXs Family Members in Gekko japonicus
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9328-9341; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110584 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 542
Abstract
SOX9 plays a crucial role in the male reproductive system, brain, and kidneys. In this study, we firstly analyzed the complete cDNA sequence and expression patterns for SOX9 from Gekko japonicus SOX9 (gjSOX9), carried out bioinformatic analyses of physiochemical properties, structure, and phylogenetic [...] Read more.
SOX9 plays a crucial role in the male reproductive system, brain, and kidneys. In this study, we firstly analyzed the complete cDNA sequence and expression patterns for SOX9 from Gekko japonicus SOX9 (gjSOX9), carried out bioinformatic analyses of physiochemical properties, structure, and phylogenetic evolution, and compared these with other members of the gjSOX family. The results indicate that gjSOX9 cDNA comprises 1895 bp with a 1482 bp ORF encoding 494aa. gjSOX9 was not only expressed in various adult tissues but also exhibited a special spatiotemporal expression pattern in gonad tissues. gjSOX9 was predicted to be a hydrophilic nucleoprotein with a characteristic HMG-Box harboring a newly identified unique sequence, “YKYQPRRR”, only present in SOXE members. Among the 20 SOX9 orthologs, gjSOX9 shares the closest genetic relationships with Eublepharis macularius SOX9, Sphacrodactylus townsendi SOX9, and Hemicordylus capensis SOX9. gjSOX9 and gjSOX10 possessed identical physicochemical properties and subcellular locations and were tightly clustered with gjSOX8 in the SOXE group. Sixteen gjSOX family members were divided into six groups: SOXB, C, D, E, F, and H with gjSOX8, 9, and 10 in SOXE among 150 SOX homologs. Collectively, the available data in this study not only facilitate a deep exploration of the functions and molecular regulation mechanisms of the gjSOX9 and gjSOX families in G. japonicus but also contribute to basic research regarding the origin and evolution of SOX9 homologs or even sex-determination mode in reptiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Biology and Germ Cell Development)
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12 pages, 1957 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Protective Effects of Nebivolol and Metoprolol against LPS-Induced Injury in H9c2 Cardiomyoblasts
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9316-9327; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110583 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Here, we, for the first time, compared the cardioprotective effects of third-generation vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol (Neb) and conventional beta-blocker metoprolol (Met) on LPS-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Our findings denoted that Neb and Met pretreatment diminish LPS-mediated cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Concomitantly, LPS-triggered [...] Read more.
Here, we, for the first time, compared the cardioprotective effects of third-generation vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol (Neb) and conventional beta-blocker metoprolol (Met) on LPS-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Our findings denoted that Neb and Met pretreatment diminish LPS-mediated cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Concomitantly, LPS-triggered inflammatory cytokines activation was significantly suppressed by Neb but not by Met. Pretreatment with either Neb or Met alleviated LPS-mediated mitochondrial impairment by enhancing the expression of genes related to its biogenesis such as PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM. On the contrary, Neb but not Met-upregulated mitochondrial fusion-related genes such as OPA, and MFN2. In summary, our findings suggest that Neb and Met treatment significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Additionally, these findings suggest that Neb but not Met significantly down-regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory factors, probably by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Function and Dysfunction)
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10 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Hippocampal Upregulation of Complement Component C3 in Response to Lipopolysaccharide Stimuli in a Model of Fragile-X Syndrome
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9306-9315; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110582 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The complement system is part of the innate immune system and has been shown to be altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of ASD and studies suggest a dysregulation in the immune system in patients [...] Read more.
The complement system is part of the innate immune system and has been shown to be altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is the main genetic cause of ASD and studies suggest a dysregulation in the immune system in patients with the disorder. To assess if an animal model of FXS presents with altered complement signaling, we treated male Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and collected the hippocampus 24 h later. Assessment of the expression of the complement genes C1q, C3, and C4 identified the upregulation of C3 in both wild-type (WT) and knockout mice. Levels of C3 also increased in both genotypes. Analysis of the correlation between the expression of C3 and the cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α identified a different relationship between the expression of the genes in Fmr1 KO when compared to WT mice. Our findings did not support our initial hypotheses that the lack of the FMR1 gene would alter complement system signaling, and that the induction of the complement system in response to LPS in Fmr1 KO mice differed from wild-type conspecifics. Full article
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22 pages, 2049 KiB  
Review
Role of Stress on Driving the Intestinal Paracellular Permeability
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9284-9305; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110581 - 18 Nov 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The gut epithelium is a polarized monolayer that exhibits apical and basolateral membrane surfaces. Monolayer cell components are joined side by side via protein complexes known as tight junction proteins (TJPs), expressed at the most apical extreme of the basolateral membrane. The gut [...] Read more.
The gut epithelium is a polarized monolayer that exhibits apical and basolateral membrane surfaces. Monolayer cell components are joined side by side via protein complexes known as tight junction proteins (TJPs), expressed at the most apical extreme of the basolateral membrane. The gut epithelium is a physical barrier that determinates intestinal permeability, referred to as the measurement of the transit of molecules from the intestinal lumen to the bloodstream or, conversely, from the blood to the gut lumen. TJPs play a role in the control of intestinal permeability that can be disrupted by stress through signal pathways triggered by the ligation of receptors with stress hormones like glucocorticoids. Preclinical studies conducted under in vitro and/or in vivo conditions have addressed underlying mechanisms that account for the impact of stress on gut permeability. These mechanisms may provide insights for novel therapeutic interventions in diseases in which stress is a risk factor, like irritable bowel syndrome. The focus of this study was to review, in an integrative context, the neuroendocrine effects of stress, with special emphasis on TJPs along with intestinal permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Current Issues in Molecular Biology)
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22 pages, 2465 KiB  
Review
Interaction and Collaboration of SP1, HIF-1, and MYC in Regulating the Expression of Cancer-Related Genes to Further Enhance Anticancer Drug Development
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9262-9283; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110580 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Specificity protein 1 (SP1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), and MYC are important transcription factors (TFs). SP1, a constitutively expressed housekeeping gene, regulates diverse yet distinct biological activities; MYC is a master regulator of all key cellular activities including cell metabolism and proliferation; and [...] Read more.
Specificity protein 1 (SP1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), and MYC are important transcription factors (TFs). SP1, a constitutively expressed housekeeping gene, regulates diverse yet distinct biological activities; MYC is a master regulator of all key cellular activities including cell metabolism and proliferation; and HIF-1, whose protein level is rapidly increased when the local tissue oxygen concentration decreases, functions as a mediator of hypoxic signals. Systems analyses of the regulatory networks in cancer have shown that SP1, HIF-1, and MYC belong to a group of TFs that function as master regulators of cancer. Therefore, the contributions of these TFs are crucial to the development of cancer. SP1, HIF-1, and MYC are often overexpressed in tumors, which indicates the importance of their roles in the development of cancer. Thus, proper manipulation of SP1, HIF-1, and MYC by appropriate agents could have a strong negative impact on cancer development. Under these circumstances, these TFs have naturally become major targets for anticancer drug development. Accordingly, there are currently many SP1 or HIF-1 inhibitors available; however, designing efficient MYC inhibitors has been extremely difficult. Studies have shown that SP1, HIF-1, and MYC modulate the expression of each other and collaborate to regulate the expression of numerous genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the interactions and collaborations of SP1, HIF1A, and MYC in the regulation of various cancer-related genes, and their potential implications in the development of anticancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Molecular Solutions for Cancer Therapy)
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10 pages, 2750 KiB  
Communication
Development of an LFD-RPA Assay for Rapid Detection of Pentatrichomonas hominis Infection in Dogs
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9252-9261; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110579 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Pentatrichomonas hominis is a trichomonad protozoan that infects the cecum and colon of humans and other mammals. It is a zoonotic pathogen that causes diarrhea in both animals and humans. As companion animals, dogs infected with P. hominis pose a risk of transmitting [...] Read more.
Pentatrichomonas hominis is a trichomonad protozoan that infects the cecum and colon of humans and other mammals. It is a zoonotic pathogen that causes diarrhea in both animals and humans. As companion animals, dogs infected with P. hominis pose a risk of transmitting it to humans. Current methods, such as direct smears and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), used for P. hominis detection have limitations, including low detection rates and the need for specialized equipment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop rapid, sensitive, and simple detection methods for clinical application. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has emerged as a technology for rapid pathogen detection. In this study, we developed a lateral flow dipstick (LFD)-RPA method based on the highly conserved SPO11-1 gene for detecting P. hominis infection by optimizing the primers, probes, and reaction conditions, and evaluating cross-reactivity with genomes of Giardia duodenalis and other parasites. The LFD-RPA method was then used to test 128 dog fecal samples collected from Changchun. The results confirmed the high specificity of the method with no cross-reactivity with the five other parasites. The lowest detection limit of the method was 102 copies/µL, and its sensitivity was 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR method. Consistent with the positivity rate observed using nested PCR, 12 samples (out of 128) tested positive using this method (positivity rate, 9.38%). In conclusion, the LFD-RPA method developed in this study represents a simple and sensitive assay that allows for the rapid detection of P. hominis infection in dogs, especially in this field. Full article
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18 pages, 6668 KiB  
Article
Phylogenetics Study to Compare Chloroplast Genomes in Four Magnoliaceae Species
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9234-9251; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110578 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Magnoliaceae, a family of perennial woody plants, contains several endangered species whose taxonomic status remains ambiguous. The study of chloroplast genome information can help in the protection of Magnoliaceae plants and confirmation of their phylogenetic relationships. In this study, the chloroplast genomes were [...] Read more.
Magnoliaceae, a family of perennial woody plants, contains several endangered species whose taxonomic status remains ambiguous. The study of chloroplast genome information can help in the protection of Magnoliaceae plants and confirmation of their phylogenetic relationships. In this study, the chloroplast genomes were sequenced, assembled, and annotated in Woonyoungia septentrionalis and three Michelia species (Michelia champaca, Michelia figo, and Michelia macclurei). Comparative analyses of genomic characteristics, repetitive sequences, and sequence differences were performed among the four Magnoliaceae plants, and phylogenetic relationships were constructed with twenty different magnolia species. The length of the chloroplast genomes varied among the four studied species ranging from 159,838 bp (Woonyoungia septentrionalis) to 160,127 bp (Michelia macclurei). Four distinct hotspot regions were identified based on nucleotide polymorphism analysis. They were petA-psbJ, psbJ-psbE, ndhD-ndhE, and rps15-ycf1. These gene fragments may be developed and utilized as new molecular marker primers. By using Liriodendron tulipifera and Liriodendron chinense as outgroups reference, a phylogenetic tree of the four Magnoliaceae species and eighteen other Magnoliaceae species was constructed with the method of Shared Coding Sequences (CDS). Results showed that the endangered species, W. septentrionalis, is relatively genetically distinct from the other three species, indicating the different phylogenetic processes among Magnoliaceae plants. Therefore, further genetic information is required to determine the relationships within Magnoliaceae. Overall, complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Magnoliaceae species reported in this paper have shed more light on phylogenetic relationships within the botanical group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioinformatics and Systems Biology)
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19 pages, 1575 KiB  
Review
Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Vaccine: Current Landscape and Perspectives
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9215-9233; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110577 - 16 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
The treatment of unresectable or metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has traditionally relied on chemotherapy or radiotherapy, yielding suboptimal outcomes. The introduction of immunotherapy has significantly improved HNSCC treatment, even if the long-term results cannot be defined as satisfactory. Its [...] Read more.
The treatment of unresectable or metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has traditionally relied on chemotherapy or radiotherapy, yielding suboptimal outcomes. The introduction of immunotherapy has significantly improved HNSCC treatment, even if the long-term results cannot be defined as satisfactory. Its mechanism of action aims to counteract the blockade of tumor immune escape. This result can also be obtained by stimulating the immune system with vaccines. This review scope is to comprehensively gather existing evidence and summarize ongoing clinical trials focused on therapeutic vaccines for HNSCC treatment. The current landscape reveals numerous promising drugs in the early stages of experimentation, along with a multitude of trials that have been suspended or abandoned for years. Nonetheless, there are encouraging results and ongoing experiments that instill hope for potential paradigm shifts in HNSCC therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Cancer: Prophylaxis, Etiopathogenesis and Treatment)
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34 pages, 518 KiB  
Review
Recruiting In Vitro Transcribed mRNA against Cancer Immunotherapy: A Contemporary Appraisal of the Current Landscape
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9181-9214; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110576 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Over 100 innovative in vitro transcribed (IVT)-mRNAs are presently undergoing clinical trials, with a projected substantial impact on the pharmaceutical market in the near future. Τhe idea behind this is that after the successful cellular internalization of IVT-mRNAs, they are subsequently translated into [...] Read more.
Over 100 innovative in vitro transcribed (IVT)-mRNAs are presently undergoing clinical trials, with a projected substantial impact on the pharmaceutical market in the near future. Τhe idea behind this is that after the successful cellular internalization of IVT-mRNAs, they are subsequently translated into proteins with therapeutic or prophylactic relevance. Simultaneously, cancer immunotherapy employs diverse strategies to mobilize the immune system in the battle against cancer. Therefore, in this review, the fundamental principles of IVT-mRNA to its recruitment in cancer immunotherapy, are discussed and analyzed. More specifically, this review paper focuses on the development of mRNA vaccines, the exploitation of neoantigens, as well as Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cells, showcasing their clinical applications and the ongoing trials for the development of next-generation immunotherapeutics. Furthermore, this study investigates the synergistic potential of combining the CAR immunotherapy and the IVT-mRNAs by introducing our research group novel, patented delivery method that utilizes the Protein Transduction Domain (PTD) technology to transduce the IVT-mRNAs encoding the CAR of interest into the Natural Killer (NK)-92 cells, highlighting the potential for enhancing the CAR NK cell potency, efficiency, and bioenergetics. While IVT-mRNA technology brings exciting progress to cancer immunotherapy, several challenges and limitations must be acknowledged, such as safety, toxicity, and delivery issues. This comprehensive exploration of IVT-mRNA technology, in line with its applications in cancer therapeutics, offers valuable insights into the opportunities and challenges in the evolving landscape of cancer immunotherapy, setting the stage for future advancements in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Challenges of Targeted Therapy of Cancers)
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16 pages, 2578 KiB  
Article
Reduction in N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I Activity Decreases Survivability and Delays Development of Zebrafish
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9165-9180; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110575 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 593
Abstract
A lack of complex and hybrid types of N-glycans in mice is embryonically lethal due to neural tube maldevelopment. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I (GnT-I; Mgat1) catalyzes a required step for converting oligomannose N-glycans into hybrid and complex N-glycans. Unlike mice, zebrafish have two Mgat1a/b genes. [...] Read more.
A lack of complex and hybrid types of N-glycans in mice is embryonically lethal due to neural tube maldevelopment. N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I (GnT-I; Mgat1) catalyzes a required step for converting oligomannose N-glycans into hybrid and complex N-glycans. Unlike mice, zebrafish have two Mgat1a/b genes. Herein, CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to knockdown GnT-Ib activity in zebrafish, referred to as Mgat1b/, to examine the impact of a decrease in complex types of N-glycans on survival and development, and sensory and motor functions. Genotyping verified the occurrence of edited Mgat1b, and LC-ESI-MS and lectin blotting identified higher levels of oligomannose and lower levels of complex N-glycans in Mgat1b/ relative to Wt AB. The microscopic visualization of developmental stages and locomotor studies using an automated tracking unit and manual touch assays revealed reduced survivability, and delayed motor and sensory functions in Mgat1b/. Moreover, embryonic staging linked reduced survivability of Mgat1b/ to disruption in brain anlagen formation. Birefringence measurements supported delayed skeletal muscle development, which corresponded with motor and sensory function impediments in Mgat1b/. Furthermore, GnT-Ib knockdown hindered cardiac activity onset. Collectively, Mgat1b/ displayed incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, such that some died in early embryonic development, while others survived to adulthood, albeit, with developmental delays. Thus, the results reveal that reducing the amount of complex-type N-glycans is unfavorable for zebrafish survival and development. Moreover, our results support a better understanding of human congenital disorders of glycosylation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Medicine)
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16 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
Lipid Peroxidation via Regulating the Metabolism of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid in Autistic Behavioral Symptoms
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9149-9164; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110574 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The association between the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. This association was studied in 17 children with ASD and seven age-matched controls regarding autistic behaviors. Behavioral symptoms were assessed using [...] Read more.
The association between the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. This association was studied in 17 children with ASD and seven age-matched controls regarding autistic behaviors. Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). To compensate for the small sample size, adaptive Lasso was used to increase the likelihood of accurate prediction, and a coefficient of variation was calculated for suitable variable selection. Plasma MDA-LDL levels were significantly increased, and plasma SOD levels were significantly decreased in addition to significantly increased plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and significantly decreased plasma arachidonic acid (ARA) levels in the 17 subjects with ASD as compared with those of the seven healthy controls. The total ABC scores were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group. The results of multiple linear regression and adaptive Lasso analyses revealed an association between increased plasma DHA levels and decreased plasma ARA levels, which were significantly associated with total ABC score and increased plasma MDA-LDL levels. Therefore, an imbalance between plasma DHA and ARA levels induces ferroptosis via lipid peroxidation. Decreased levels of α-linolenic acid and γ-linolenic acid may be connected to the total ABC scores with regard to lipid peroxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Prostaglandins in Autism)
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17 pages, 1484 KiB  
Review
Molecular Aspects of MAFLD—New Insights on Pathogenesis and Treatment
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9132-9148; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110573 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Metabolic-associated liver disease (MAFLD) affects up to 70% of overweight and more than 90% of morbidly obese people, and its pathogenesis is rather complex and multifactorial. The criteria for MAFLD include the presence of hepatic steatosis in addition to one of the following [...] Read more.
Metabolic-associated liver disease (MAFLD) affects up to 70% of overweight and more than 90% of morbidly obese people, and its pathogenesis is rather complex and multifactorial. The criteria for MAFLD include the presence of hepatic steatosis in addition to one of the following three criteria: overweight or obesity, presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), or evidence of metabolic dysregulation. If the specific criteria are present, the diagnosis of MAFLD can be made regardless of alcohol consumption and previous liver disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of MAFLD, including inflammation, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial disfunction, and oxidative stress, as well as the impact of intestinal gut microbiota, are constantly being elucidated. Treatment strategies that are continually emerging are based on different key points in MAFLD pathogenesis. Yet, the ideal therapeutic option has still not been found and future research is of great importance, as MAFLD represents a multisystemic disease with numerous complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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15 pages, 3355 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) Sprout Extract in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury Model
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9117-9131; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110572 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), a member of the cabbage family, is abundant with many nutrients, including vitamins, potassium, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. Consequently, it has been used as a functional food additive to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. In the current [...] Read more.
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), a member of the cabbage family, is abundant with many nutrients, including vitamins, potassium, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. Consequently, it has been used as a functional food additive to reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. In the current study, the effects of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract (BSE) on the inflammatory response were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Comparative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sulforaphane content from different extracts revealed that 70% ethanolic BSE contained more sulforaphane than the other extracts. qPCR and enzyme immunoassay analyses revealed that BSE markedly reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, including cyclooxygenase 2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment with BSE improved the survival rate and suppressed alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase expression in LPS-induced endotoxemic mice, while proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and iNOS decreased dramatically in the LPS-induced liver injury model via BSE treatment. Additionally, F4/80 immunostaining showed that BSE suppressed hepatic macrophage infiltration in the liver after lipopolysaccharide injection. In conclusion, BSE may be a potential nutraceutical for preventing and regulating excessive immune responses in inflammatory disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Their Biological Activities)
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14 pages, 4288 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Enlarged Tongues in Cloned Piglets
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9103-9116; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110571 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Although the efficiency of cloning remains very low, this technique has become the most reliable way to produce transgenic pigs. However, the high rate of abnormal offspring such as an enlarged tongue lowers the cloning efficiency by reducing the early survivability of piglets. [...] Read more.
Although the efficiency of cloning remains very low, this technique has become the most reliable way to produce transgenic pigs. However, the high rate of abnormal offspring such as an enlarged tongue lowers the cloning efficiency by reducing the early survivability of piglets. Thus, the present study was conducted to identify the characteristics of the enlarged tongue from cloned piglets by histologic and transcriptomic analysis. As a result, it was observed that the tissues from enlarged tongues (n = 3) showed isolated and broken muscle bundles with wide spaces while the tissues from normal tongues (n = 3) showed the tight connection of muscle bundles without space by histological analysis. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy results also showed the formation of isolated and broken muscle bundles in enlarged tongues. The transcriptome analysis showed a total of 197 upregulated and 139 downregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in enlarged tongues. Moreover, there was clear evidence for the difference between groups in the muscle system process with high relation in the biological process by gene ontology analysis. The analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway of differentially expressed genes indicated that the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and glucagon signaling pathway were also involved. Conclusively, our results could suggest that the abnormal glycolytic regulation may result in the formation of an enlarged tongue. These findings might have the potential to understand the underlying mechanisms, abnormal development, and disease diagnosis in cloned pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Current Issues in Molecular Biology)
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19 pages, 1523 KiB  
Review
The Interconnection between Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Steatotic Liver Disease—The Transition from an Adipocentric to Liver-Centric Approach
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9084-9102; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110570 - 14 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
The central mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of MAFLD is insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, which stimulates triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in the liver. On the other side, triglyceride and free fatty acid accumulation in hepatocytes promotes insulin resistance via oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum [...] Read more.
The central mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of MAFLD is insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, which stimulates triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in the liver. On the other side, triglyceride and free fatty acid accumulation in hepatocytes promotes insulin resistance via oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipotoxicity, and the increased secretion of hepatokines. Cytokines and adipokines cause insulin resistance, thus promoting lipolysis in adipose tissue and ectopic fat deposition in the muscles and liver. Free fatty acids along with cytokines and adipokines contribute to insulin resistance in the liver via the activation of numerous signaling pathways. The secretion of hepatokines, hormone-like proteins, primarily by hepatocytes is disturbed and impairs signaling pathways, causing metabolic dysregulation in the liver. ER stress and unfolded protein response play significant roles in insulin resistance aggravation through the activation of apoptosis, inflammatory response, and insulin signaling impairment mediated via IRE1/PERK/ATF6 signaling pathways and the upregulation of SREBP 1c. Circadian rhythm derangement and biological clock desynchronization are related to metabolic disorders, insulin resistance, and NAFLD, suggesting clock genes as a potential target for new therapeutic strategies. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms of hepatic insulin resistance involved in NAFLD development and progression. Full article
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8 pages, 15905 KiB  
Brief Report
Modelling 3D Tumour Microenvironment In Vivo: A Tool to Predict Cancer Fate
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9076-9083; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110569 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Recently, many studies demonstrated the fundamental role of the tumour microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression. Here, we describe a method to visualize in 3D the behaviour of tumours in zebrafish embryos. We highlight two major actors of the TME, macrophages and vessels. This [...] Read more.
Recently, many studies demonstrated the fundamental role of the tumour microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression. Here, we describe a method to visualize in 3D the behaviour of tumours in zebrafish embryos. We highlight two major actors of the TME, macrophages and vessels. This valuable tool is transposable to Patient-Derived Xenograft imaging in order to predict the fate of malignant tumours according to the dynamics of their TME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Therapy, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 8350 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Analyses Unravel Metabolic and Transcriptional Differences in Tender Shoots from Two Sechium edule Varieties
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9060-9075; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110568 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Chaylte vine, the tender shoot of Sechium edule, is popular among vegetable consumers because of its high nutritional content, crisp texture, and unique flavor. Existing studies on the nutrient composition of chaylte vines are mostly simple chemical determinations, which have limited the [...] Read more.
Chaylte vine, the tender shoot of Sechium edule, is popular among vegetable consumers because of its high nutritional content, crisp texture, and unique flavor. Existing studies on the nutrient composition of chaylte vines are mostly simple chemical determinations, which have limited the breeding of specialized cultivars and the development of related industries. Using metabolomics combined with transcriptomics, this study analyzed the metabolic characteristics and related molecular mechanisms of two common varieties of chaylte vines: green-skinned (SG) and white-skinned (SW). Between the two varieties, a total of 277 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 739 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Furthermore, chemical assays demonstrated that the SW exhibited a higher total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, it was found that the SG samples exhibited a higher diversity of flavonoid subclasses compared to the SW samples, despite having a lower total flavonoid content. This inconsistent finding was likely due to the differential expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes in the two varieties. These results laid the foundation for investigating the mechanisms involved in flavonoid regulation and the breeding of specialized S. edule cultivars for chaylte vine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Plant Metabolomics, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 1880 KiB  
Review
How Thymoquinone from Nigella sativa Accelerates Wound Healing through Multiple Mechanisms and Targets
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9039-9059; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110567 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1640
Abstract
Wound healing is a multifaceted process necessitating the collaboration of numerous elements to mend damaged tissue. Plant and animal-derived natural compounds have been utilized for wound treatment over the centuries, with many scientific investigations examining these compounds. Those with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a multifaceted process necessitating the collaboration of numerous elements to mend damaged tissue. Plant and animal-derived natural compounds have been utilized for wound treatment over the centuries, with many scientific investigations examining these compounds. Those with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties are particularly noteworthy, as they target various wound-healing stages to expedite recovery. Thymoquinone, derived from Nigella sativa (N. sativa)—a medicinal herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine systems such as Unani, Ayurveda, Chinese, and Greco-Arabic and Islamic medicine—has demonstrated a range of therapeutic properties. Thymoquinone exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activities, positioning it as a potential remedy for skin pathologies. This review examines recent research on how thymoquinone accelerates wound healing and the mechanisms behind its effectiveness. We carried out a comprehensive review of literature and electronic databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and MedlinePlus. Our aim was to gather relevant papers published between 2015 and August 2023. The main criteria for inclusion were that the articles had to be peer reviewed, original, written in English, and discuss the wound-healing parameters of thymoquinone in wound repair. Our review focused on the effects of thymoquinone on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in wound healing. We also examined the role of cytokines, signal transduction cascades, and clinical trials. We found sufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of thymoquinone in promoting wound healing. However, there is no consensus on the most effective concentrations of these substances. It is therefore essential to determine the optimal treatment doses and the best route of administration. Further research is also needed to investigate potential side effects and the performance of thymoquinone in clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Their Biological Activities)
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20 pages, 752 KiB  
Review
Advances in CAR T Cell Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9019-9038; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110566 - 12 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
Since its first approval by the FDA in 2017, tremendous progress has been made in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, the adoptive transfer of engineered, CAR-expressing T lymphocyte. CAR T cells are all composed of three main elements: an extracellular antigen-binding [...] Read more.
Since its first approval by the FDA in 2017, tremendous progress has been made in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, the adoptive transfer of engineered, CAR-expressing T lymphocyte. CAR T cells are all composed of three main elements: an extracellular antigen-binding domain, an intracellular signaling domain responsible for T cell activation, and a hinge that joins these two domains. Continuous improvement has been made in CARs, now in their fifth generation, particularly in the intracellular signaling domain responsible for T cell activation. CAR T cell therapy has revolutionized the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Nonetheless, the use of CAR T cell therapy for solid tumors has not attained comparable levels of success. Here we review the challenges in achieving effective CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors, and emerging CAR T cells that have shown great promise for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A growing number of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of CAR T cell therapy on NSCLC, targeting different types of surface antigens. They include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mesothelin (MSLN), prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), and mucin 1 (MUC1). Potential new targets such as erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 (EphA2), tissue factor (TF), and protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) are currently under investigation in clinical trials. The challenges in developing CAR T for NSCLC therapy and other approaches for enhancing CAR T efficacy are discussed. Finally, we provide our perspective on imaging CAR T cell action by reviewing the two main radionuclide-based CAR T cell imaging techniques, the direct labeling of CAR T cells or indirect labeling via a reporter gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Pathogenesis Regulation in Cancer, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 932 KiB  
Review
Influence of Breastfeeding on the State of Meta-Inflammation in Obesity—A Narrative Review
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 9003-9018; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110565 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Obesity has become an emerging health issue worldwide that continues to grow in females of reproductive age as well. Obesity, as a multisystem and chronic disease, is associated with metabolic inflammation, which is defined as chronic low-grade systemic inflammation mediated by, i.a., adipose [...] Read more.
Obesity has become an emerging health issue worldwide that continues to grow in females of reproductive age as well. Obesity, as a multisystem and chronic disease, is associated with metabolic inflammation, which is defined as chronic low-grade systemic inflammation mediated by, i.a., adipose tissue macrophages. Lactation has been proven to have a beneficial influence on maternal health and could help restore metabolic balance, especially in the state of maternal obesity. In this review, we aimed to analyze the influence of breastfeeding on chronic low-grade meta-inflammation caused by obesity. We performed a comprehensive literature review using the PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar electronic databases. For this purpose, we searched for “metabolic inflammation”; “meta-inflammation”; “obesity”; “breastfeeding”; “fetal programming”; “energy metabolism”; “postpartum”; “immunity”; “immune system”; and “inflammation” keyword combinations. While the clinical impact of breastfeeding on maternal and offspring health is currently well known, we decided to gain insight into more specific metabolic effects of adiposity, lipid, and glucose homeostasis, and immunological effects caused by the activity of cytokines, macrophages, and other immune system cells. Further research on the immunological and metabolic effects of breastfeeding in obese patients is key to understanding and potentially developing obesity therapeutic strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Understanding Molecular Basis of Inflammatory Diseases)
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14 pages, 2841 KiB  
Article
Cloning, Expression and Functional Characterization of a Novel α-Humulene Synthase, Responsible for the Formation of Sesquiterpene in Agarwood Originating from Aquilaria malaccensis
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8989-9002; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110564 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 775
Abstract
This study describes the cloning, expression and functional characterization of α-humulene synthase, responsible for the formation of the key aromatic compound α-humulene in agarwood originating from Aquilaria malaccensis. The partial sesquiterpene synthase gene from the transcriptome data of A. malaccensis was utilized [...] Read more.
This study describes the cloning, expression and functional characterization of α-humulene synthase, responsible for the formation of the key aromatic compound α-humulene in agarwood originating from Aquilaria malaccensis. The partial sesquiterpene synthase gene from the transcriptome data of A. malaccensis was utilized for full-length gene isolation via a 3′ RACE PCR. The complete gene, denoted as AmDG2, has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1671 bp and encodes for a polypeptide of 556 amino acids. In silico analysis of the protein highlighted several conserved motifs typically found in terpene synthases such as Asp-rich substrate binding (DDxxD), metal-binding residues (NSE/DTE), and cytoplasmic ER retention (RxR) motifs at their respective sites. The AmDG2 was successfully expressed in the E. coli:pET-28a(+) expression vector whereby an expected band of about 64 kDa in size was detected in the SDS-PAGE gel. In vitro enzyme assay using substrate farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) revealed that AmDG2 gave rise to two sesquiterpenes: α-humulene (major) and β-caryophyllene (minor), affirming its identity as α-humulene synthase. On the other hand, protein modeling performed using AlphaFold2 suggested that AmDG2 consists entirely of α-helices with short connecting loops and turns. Meanwhile, molecular docking via AutoDock Vina (Version 1.5.7) predicted that Asp307 and Asp311 act as catalytic residues in the α-humulene synthase. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the cloning, expression and functional characterization of α-humulene synthase from agarwood originating from A. malaccensis species. These findings reveal a deeper understanding of the structure and functional properties of the α-humulene synthase and could be utilized for metabolic engineering work in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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15 pages, 1252 KiB  
Review
The Role of Epigenetic Modifier Mutations in Peripheral T-Cell Lymphomas
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8974-8988; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110563 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a group of diseases with a low incidence, high degree of heterogeneity, and a dismal prognosis in most cases. Because of the low incidence of these diseases, there have been few therapeutic novelties developed over time. Nevertheless, this [...] Read more.
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a group of diseases with a low incidence, high degree of heterogeneity, and a dismal prognosis in most cases. Because of the low incidence of these diseases, there have been few therapeutic novelties developed over time. Nevertheless, this fact is changing presently as epigenetic modifiers have been shown to be recurrently mutated in some types of PTCLs, especially in the cases of PTCLs not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), T follicular helper (TFH), and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). These have brought about more insight into PTCL biology, especially in the case of PTCLs arising from TFH lymphocytes. From a biological perspective, it has been observed that ten-eleven translocators (TET2) mutated T lymphocytes tend to polarize to TFH, while Tregs lose their inhibitory properties. IDH2 R172 was shown to have inhibitory effects on TET2, mimicking the effects of TET2 mutations, as well as having effects on histone methylation. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) loss-of-function, although it was shown to have opposite effects to TET2 from an inflammatory perspective, was also shown to increase the number of T lymphocyte progenitors. Aside from bringing about more knowledge of PTCL biology, these mutations were shown to increase the sensitivity of PTCLs to certain epigenetic therapies, like hypomethylating agents (HMAs) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis). Thus, to answer the question from the title of this review: We found the Achilles heel, but only for one of the Achilles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Medicine)
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24 pages, 1420 KiB  
Review
Nerve Growth Factor and Autoimmune Diseases
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8950-8973; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110562 - 10 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
NGF plays a crucial immunomodulatory role and increased levels are found in numerous tissues during autoimmune states. NGF directly modulates innate and adaptive immune responses of B and T cells and causes the release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters controlling the immune system activation [...] Read more.
NGF plays a crucial immunomodulatory role and increased levels are found in numerous tissues during autoimmune states. NGF directly modulates innate and adaptive immune responses of B and T cells and causes the release of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters controlling the immune system activation in inflamed tissues. Evidence suggests that NGF is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous immune diseases including autoimmune thyroiditis, chronic arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, mastocytosis, and chronic granulomatous disease. Furthermore, as NGF levels have been linked to disease severity, it could be considered an optimal early biomarker to identify therapeutic approach efficacy. In conclusion, by gaining insights into how these molecules function and which cells they interact with, future studies can devise targeted therapies to address various neurological, immunological, and other disorders more effectively. This knowledge may pave the way for innovative treatments based on NGF manipulation aimed at improving the quality of life for individuals affected by diseases involving neurotrophins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Neuroinflammation)
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11 pages, 4213 KiB  
Communication
T-Cell Receptor Repertoire as a Predictor of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Renal Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8939-8949; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110561 - 09 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective in treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but can also cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The relationship between irAEs and the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in RCC patients treated with ICIs remains unclear. We analyzed the relationship between [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are effective in treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but can also cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The relationship between irAEs and the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in RCC patients treated with ICIs remains unclear. We analyzed the relationship between the severity and diversity of irAEs and the TCR repertoire in RCC patients who received dual checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab + nivolumab). The TCRβ (TRB) repertoires were characterized in peripheral blood samples from six patients with RCC before the initiation of ICI therapy. The diversity and clonality of the TCR repertoire were compared between patients with grade 2 and grade 3 irAEs. The median proportion of top 10 unique reads in the TCR repertoire was significantly higher in grade 3 compared with grade 2 irAEs in RCC patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (grade 2: 0.196%; grade 3: 0.346%; p = 0.0038). We provide insight into the relationship between TCR repertoire and irAEs in RCC patients treated with ICIs. TCR repertoire clonality may be associated with the development of irAEs in RCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Current Issues in Molecular Biology)
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14 pages, 5207 KiB  
Article
Fenbendazole Exhibits Differential Anticancer Effects In Vitro and In Vivo in Models of Mouse Lymphoma
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8925-8938; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110560 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2386
Abstract
Fenbendazole (FBZ) has been safely used as an antiparasitic agent in animals for decades, and the anticancer effects of FBZ have been studied through various mechanisms. However, there is a lack of in vivo studies that include lymphoma. Therefore, this study examined the [...] Read more.
Fenbendazole (FBZ) has been safely used as an antiparasitic agent in animals for decades, and the anticancer effects of FBZ have been studied through various mechanisms. However, there is a lack of in vivo studies that include lymphoma. Therefore, this study examined the effects of FBZ on EL-4 cells and a mouse T lymphoma model. FBZ induced G2/M phase arrest in EL-4 cells, resulting in cell death and decreased metabolic activity. However, FBZ had no anticancer effects on an EL-4 mouse lymphoma model in vivo, as evident by rapid weight loss and tumor growth comparable to the control. The FBZ-treated EL-4 cells expressed higher levels of PD-L1 and CD86, which are associated with T cell immunity in the tumor microenvironment (TME), than the controls. Furthermore, the hematoxylin and eosin staining of the FBZ-treated tumor tissues showed a starry sky pattern, which is seen in actively proliferating cancer tissues, and an immunohistochemical analysis revealed a high percentage of immunosuppressive M2 macrophages. These changes in the immune activity in the TME contradict the results of the in vitro experiments, and further studies are needed to determine the detailed mechanisms by which FBZ induces these responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Therapy, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 4023 KiB  
Article
MAP3K19 Affects TWEAK-Induced Response in Cultured Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Regulates Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Asthma Murine Model
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8907-8924; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110559 - 08 Nov 2023
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and asthma; however, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19 (MAP3K19) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of MAP3K19 in in vitro EMT and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced [...] Read more.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and asthma; however, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19 (MAP3K19) remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of MAP3K19 in in vitro EMT and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine models. The involvement of MAP3K19 in the EMT and the production of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed using a cultured bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, in which MAP3K19 was knocked down using small interfering RNA. We also evaluated the involvement of MAP3K19 in the OVA-induced asthma murine model using Map3k19-deficient (MAP3K19−/−) mice. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) induced the MAP3K19 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the BEAS-2B cells. The knockdown of MAP3K19 enhanced the reduction in E-cadherin mRNA and the production of regulated upon activation normal T cell express sequence (RANTES) via stimulation with TWEAK alone or with the combination of TGF-β1 and TWEAK. Furthermore, the expression of MAP3K19 mRNA was upregulated in both the lungs and tracheas of the mice in the OVA-induced asthma murine model. The MAP3K19−/− mice exhibited worsened eosinophilic inflammation and an increased production of RANTES in the airway epithelium compared with the wild-type mice. These findings indicate that MAP3K19 suppressed the TWEAK-stimulated airway epithelial response, including adhesion factor attenuation and RANTES production, and suppressed allergic airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model, suggesting that MAP3K19 regulates allergic airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Full article
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13 pages, 1742 KiB  
Review
Plant Metabolomics: Current Initiatives and Future Prospects
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8894-8906; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110558 - 08 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
Plant metabolomics is a rapidly advancing field of plant sciences and systems biology. It involves comprehensive analyses of small molecules (metabolites) in plant tissues and cells. These metabolites include a wide range of compounds, such as sugars, amino acids, organic acids, secondary metabolites [...] Read more.
Plant metabolomics is a rapidly advancing field of plant sciences and systems biology. It involves comprehensive analyses of small molecules (metabolites) in plant tissues and cells. These metabolites include a wide range of compounds, such as sugars, amino acids, organic acids, secondary metabolites (e.g., alkaloids and flavonoids), lipids, and more. Metabolomics allows an understanding of the functional roles of specific metabolites in plants’ physiology, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. It can lead to the identification of metabolites linked with specific traits or functions. Plant metabolic networks and pathways can be better understood with the help of metabolomics. Researchers can determine how plants react to environmental cues or genetic modifications by examining how metabolite profiles change under various crop stages. Metabolomics plays a major role in crop improvement and biotechnology. Integrating metabolomics data with other omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) provides a more comprehensive perspective of plant biology. This systems biology approach enables researchers to understand the complex interactions within organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Plant Metabolomics, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Anti-Allergic Inflammatory Effect of Agarum cribrosum and Its Phlorotannin Component, Trifuhalol A, against the Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma Model
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8882-8893; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110557 - 05 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease involving structural changes to the respiratory system and severe immune responses mediated by allergic cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators. Agarum cribrosum (AC) is a kind of seaweed which contains a phlorotannin, trifuhalol A. To evaluate its anti-allergic inflammatory [...] Read more.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease involving structural changes to the respiratory system and severe immune responses mediated by allergic cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators. Agarum cribrosum (AC) is a kind of seaweed which contains a phlorotannin, trifuhalol A. To evaluate its anti-allergic inflammatory effect against asthma, an ovalbumin inhalation-induced mouse asthma model was used. Histologic observations proved that trifuhalol A is minimizing the lung and tracheal structure changes as well as the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells against ovalbumin inhalation challenge. From the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, ovalbumin-specific IgE and Th2-specific cytokines, IL-4, -5, and -13, were reduced with trifuhalol A treatment. In addition, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in lung homogenate were also significantly reduced via trifuhalol A treatment. Taken together, trifuhalol A, isolated from AC, was able to protect lung and airways from Th2-specific cytokine release, and IgE mediated allergic inflammation as well as the attenuation of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in lung, which results in the suppression of eosinophils and the mast cells involved asthmatic pathology. Full article
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18 pages, 2299 KiB  
Review
Biological Roles and Pathogenic Mechanisms of LncRNA MIR4435-2HG in Cancer: A Comprehensive Review
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8864-8881; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110556 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 737
Abstract
The long non-coding RNA MIR4435-2HG has been confirmed to play a crucial regulatory role in various types of tumors. As a novel type of non-coding RNA, MIR4435-2HG plays a key role in regulating the expression of tumor-related genes, interfering with cellular signaling pathways, [...] Read more.
The long non-coding RNA MIR4435-2HG has been confirmed to play a crucial regulatory role in various types of tumors. As a novel type of non-coding RNA, MIR4435-2HG plays a key role in regulating the expression of tumor-related genes, interfering with cellular signaling pathways, and affecting tumor immune evasion. Its unique structure allows it to regulate the expression of various tumor-related genes through different pathways, participating in the regulation of tumor signaling pathways, such as regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, influencing the biological behaviors of proliferation, metastasis, and apoptosis in tumors. Numerous studies have found a high expression of MIR4435-2HG in various tumor tissues, closely related to the clinical pathological characteristics of tumors, such as staging, lymph node metastasis and prognosis. Some studies have discovered that MIR4435-2HG can regulate the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs, affecting tumor cell drug resistance. This provides new insights into overcoming tumor drug resistance by regulating MIR4435-2HG. Therefore, studying its molecular mechanisms, expression regulation, and its relationship with the clinical features of tumors is of great significance for revealing the mechanisms of tumor occurrence and developing new therapeutic targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Tumor Microenvironment for Cancer Therapy, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
STM2457 Inhibits the Invasion and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer by Down-Regulating BRAF-Activated Noncoding RNA N6-Methyladenosine Modification
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2023, 45(11), 8852-8863; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb45110555 - 03 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the digestive system that is highly malignant, difficult to treat, and confers a poor prognosis for patients. BRAF-activated noncoding RNA (BANCR) has been proven to play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the digestive system that is highly malignant, difficult to treat, and confers a poor prognosis for patients. BRAF-activated noncoding RNA (BANCR) has been proven to play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we focused on BANCR as a potential therapeutic target for human pancreatic cancer. The BANCR level in pancreatic cancer tissues and cells is affected by m6A methylation. Based on this, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a highly potent and selective first-in-class catalytic inhibitor of METTL3 (STM2457) on BANCR m6A methylation and its malignant biological behaviors in pancreatic cancer. The relationship between BANCR expression and BANCR m6A modification was detected with RT-qPCR and MeRIP-PCR. The expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3), the key enzyme involved in m6A methylation, in pancreatic cancer tissues was detected using a Western blot. STM2457 was used in vitro to investigate its resistance to the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. BANCR was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and cells, which was associated with poor clinical outcomes and validated in pancreatic cancer cell lines. m6A modification was highly enriched within BANCR and enhanced its expression. Remarkably, STM2457 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by down-regulating BANCR m6A modifications. This study demonstrates the promise of BANCR as a new diagnostic and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer and reveals the therapeutic effect that STM2457 exerts on pancreatic cancer by down-regulating BANCR m6A modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adhesion, Metastasis and Inhibition of Cancer Cells)
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