Hydroethanolic preparations of the botanical species Acmella oleracea
L. are used in the north of Brazil for the treatment of various diseases. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the toxicity of this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of A. oleracea
L. (EHFAo) flowers in zebrafish by immersion and oral administration. The extract was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS). EHFAo was administered orally (44.457, 88.915, 199.94, 281.83, and 448.81 mg/kg) and by immersion (250, 300, 350, 400, and 450 µg/L). Behavioral and histopathological analysis of gills, liver, intestine, and kidney were performed. The presence of (2E,6Z,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol) in EHFAo was identified by ultra-high-re.solution liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI-MS). Treatment with EHFAo caused significant behavioral changes and death. The calculated median lethal dose (LD50
) was 148.42 mg/kg, and the calculated median lethal concentration (LC50
) was 320 μg/L. In the histopathological study, it was observed that upon oral treatment, the tissue alterations that compromised the normal functioning of the organism occurred with EHFAo doses of 88.915, 199.53, and 281.83 mg/kg, the intestine being the most affected. When the treatment was performed by immersion, the most toxic EHFAo concentrations according to the histopathological evaluation were 300, 350, and 400 μg/L, with the most affected organ being the gills. Finally, EHFAo in this study was shown to be more toxic to the liver, intestine, and kidneys when administered orally and to gills, liver, and kidneys when administered by immersion in water. Therefore, considering the results obtained and the chemical characteristics of the main phytochemical marker of EHFAo, spilanthol, it can be suggested that, depending on the dose, this compound can lead to histopathological damages in the organs highlighted in this study.