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Sensors, Volume 24, Issue 4 (February-2 2024) – 306 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In this paper, a nanomaterial substrate functionalized with cyclodextrin-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (SH-β-CD@AuNPs) was prepared by reacting o-phenylenediamine (OPD) with nitrite, incorporating mono-(6-mercapto)-β-cyclodextrin molecules and AuNPs. Nitrate was oxidized to nitrite via vanadium (III) chloride, followed by the cyclization of nitrite and OPD under acidic conditions to form benzotriazole (BTAH). Experimental results show that BTAH exhibits distinct SERS characteristic peaks at 1168, 1240, 1375, and 1600 cm−1, with the lowest detection limits of 3.33 × 10−2, 5.84 × 10−2, 2.40 × 10−2, and 1.05 × 10−2 μmol/L, respectively, and a linear range of 0.1–30.0 μmol/L. The proposed method provides an effective tool for selective and accurate online detection of nitrite and nitrate nitrogen in aquaculture water. View this paper
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12 pages, 6691 KiB  
Article
A Flexible Wearable Sensor Based on Laser-Induced Graphene for High-Precision Fine Motion Capture for Pilots
by Xiaoqing Xing, Yao Zou, Mian Zhong, Shichen Li, Hongyun Fan, Xia Lei, Juhang Yin, Jiaqing Shen, Xinyi Liu, Man Xu, Yong Jiang, Tao Tang, Yu Qian and Chao Zhou
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041349 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
There has been a significant shift in research focus in recent years toward laser-induced graphene (LIG), which is a high-performance material with immense potential for use in energy storage, ultrahydrophobic water applications, and electronic devices. In particular, LIG has demonstrated considerable potential in [...] Read more.
There has been a significant shift in research focus in recent years toward laser-induced graphene (LIG), which is a high-performance material with immense potential for use in energy storage, ultrahydrophobic water applications, and electronic devices. In particular, LIG has demonstrated considerable potential in the field of high-precision human motion posture capture using flexible sensing materials. In this study, we investigated the surface morphology evolution and performance of LIG formed by varying the laser energy accumulation times. Further, to capture human motion posture, we evaluated the performance of highly accurate flexible wearable sensors based on LIG. The experimental results showed that the sensors prepared using LIG exhibited exceptional flexibility and mechanical performance when the laser energy accumulation was optimized three times. They exhibited remarkable attributes, such as high sensitivity (~41.4), a low detection limit (0.05%), a rapid time response (response time of ~150 ms; relaxation time of ~100 ms), and excellent response stability even after 2000 s at a strain of 1.0% or 8.0%. These findings unequivocally show that flexible wearable sensors based on LIG have significant potential for capturing human motion posture, wrist pulse rates, and eye blinking patterns. Moreover, the sensors can capture various physiological signals for pilots to provide real-time capturing. Full article
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22 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Multi-Hop Clustering and Routing Protocol Based on Enhanced Snake Optimizer and Golden Jackal Optimization in WSNs
by Zhen Wang, Jin Duan and Pengzhan Xing
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041348 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 530
Abstract
A collection of smaller, less expensive sensor nodes called wireless sensor networks (WSNs) use their sensing range to gather environmental data. Data are sent in a multi-hop manner from the sensing node to the base station (BS). The bulk of these sensor nodes [...] Read more.
A collection of smaller, less expensive sensor nodes called wireless sensor networks (WSNs) use their sensing range to gather environmental data. Data are sent in a multi-hop manner from the sensing node to the base station (BS). The bulk of these sensor nodes run on batteries, which makes replacement and maintenance somewhat difficult. Preserving the network’s energy efficiency is essential to its longevity. In this study, we propose an energy-efficient multi-hop routing protocol called ESO-GJO, which combines the enhanced Snake Optimizer (SO) and Golden Jackal Optimization (GJO). The ESO-GJO method first applies the traditional SO algorithm and then integrates the Brownian motion function in the exploitation stage. The process then integrates multiple parameters, including the energy consumption of the cluster head (CH), node degree of CH, and distance between node and BS to create a fitness function that is used to choose a group of appropriate CHs. Lastly, a multi-hop routing path between CH and BS is created using the GJO optimization technique. According to simulation results, the suggested scheme outperforms LSA, LEACH-IACA, and LEACH-ANT in terms of lowering network energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Full article
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17 pages, 7795 KiB  
Article
Research on Alternating Current Field Measurement Method for Buried Defects of Titanium Alloy Aircraft Skin
by Chunhui Liao, Ruize Wang, Cheng Lv, Tao Chen, Zhiyang Deng and Xiaochun Song
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041347 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Titanium alloys are extensively used in the manufacturing of key components in aerospace engines and aircraft structures due to their excellent properties. However, aircraft skins in harsh operating environments are subjected to long-term corrosion and pressure concentrations, which can lead to the formation [...] Read more.
Titanium alloys are extensively used in the manufacturing of key components in aerospace engines and aircraft structures due to their excellent properties. However, aircraft skins in harsh operating environments are subjected to long-term corrosion and pressure concentrations, which can lead to the formation of cracks and other defects. In this paper, a detection probe is designed based on the principle of alternating current field measurement, which can effectively detect both surface and buried defects in thin-walled titanium alloy plates. A finite element simulation model of alternating current field measurement detection for buried defects in thin-walled TC4 titanium alloy plates is established using COMSOL 5.6 software. The influence of defect length, depth, and excitation frequency on the characteristic signals is investigated, and the detection probe is optimized. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed detection probe exhibits high detection sensitivity to varying lengths and depths of buried defects, and can detect small cracks with a length of 3 mm and a burial depth of 2 mm, as well as deep defects with a length of 10 mm and a burial depth of 4 mm. The feasibility of this probe for detecting buried defects in titanium alloy aircraft skin is confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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14 pages, 1377 KiB  
Article
ScalableDigitalHealth (SDH): An IoT-Based Scalable Framework for Remote Patient Monitoring
by Hisham Alasmary
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041346 - 19 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 691
Abstract
Addressing the increasing demand for remote patient monitoring, especially among the elderly and mobility-impaired, this study proposes the “ScalableDigitalHealth” (SDH) framework. The framework integrates smart digital health solutions with latency-aware edge computing autoscaling, providing a novel approach to remote patient monitoring. By leveraging [...] Read more.
Addressing the increasing demand for remote patient monitoring, especially among the elderly and mobility-impaired, this study proposes the “ScalableDigitalHealth” (SDH) framework. The framework integrates smart digital health solutions with latency-aware edge computing autoscaling, providing a novel approach to remote patient monitoring. By leveraging IoT technology and application autoscaling, the “SDH” enables the real-time tracking of critical health parameters, such as ECG, body temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. These vital metrics are efficiently transmitted in real time to AWS cloud storage through a layered networking architecture. The contributions are two-fold: (1) establishing real-time remote patient monitoring and (2) developing a scalable architecture that features latency-aware horizontal pod autoscaling for containerized healthcare applications. The architecture incorporates a scalable IoT-based architecture and an innovative microservice autoscaling strategy in edge computing, driven by dynamic latency thresholds and enhanced by the integration of custom metrics. This work ensures heightened accessibility, cost-efficiency, and rapid responsiveness to patient needs, marking a significant leap forward in the field. By dynamically adjusting pod numbers based on latency, the system optimizes system responsiveness, particularly in edge computing’s proximity-based processing. This innovative fusion of technologies not only revolutionizes remote healthcare delivery but also enhances Kubernetes performance, preventing unresponsiveness during high usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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19 pages, 10524 KiB  
Article
VELIE: A Vehicle-Based Efficient Low-Light Image Enhancement Method for Intelligent Vehicles
by Linwei Ye, Dong Wang, Dongyi Yang, Zhiyuan Ma and Quan Zhang
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041345 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
In Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS), Automated Driving Systems (ADS), and Driver Assistance Systems (DAS), RGB camera sensors are extensively utilized for object detection, semantic segmentation, and object tracking. Despite their popularity due to low costs, RGB cameras exhibit weak robustness in complex [...] Read more.
In Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS), Automated Driving Systems (ADS), and Driver Assistance Systems (DAS), RGB camera sensors are extensively utilized for object detection, semantic segmentation, and object tracking. Despite their popularity due to low costs, RGB cameras exhibit weak robustness in complex environments, particularly underperforming in low-light conditions, which raises a significant concern. To address these challenges, multi-sensor fusion systems or specialized low-light cameras have been proposed, but their high costs render them unsuitable for widespread deployment. On the other hand, improvements in post-processing algorithms offer a more economical and effective solution. However, current research in low-light image enhancement still shows substantial gaps in detail enhancement on nighttime driving datasets and is characterized by high deployment costs, failing to achieve real-time inference and edge deployment. Therefore, this paper leverages the Swin Vision Transformer combined with a gamma transformation integrated U-Net for the decoupled enhancement of initial low-light inputs, proposing a deep learning enhancement network named Vehicle-based Efficient Low-light Image Enhancement (VELIE). VELIE achieves state-of-the-art performance on various driving datasets with a processing time of only 0.19 s, significantly enhancing high-dimensional environmental perception tasks in low-light conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing Image Enhancement and Classification)
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9 pages, 235 KiB  
Communication
Jumping Motor Skills in Typically Developing Preschool Children Assessed Using a Battery of Tests
by Ewa Gieysztor, Aleksandra Dawidziak, Mateusz Kowal and Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041344 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 479
Abstract
The preschool period is characterised by the improvement in motor skills. One of the developmental tasks in children is the ability to jump. Jumping plays an important role in the development of leg strength and balance. It is the gateway to more complex [...] Read more.
The preschool period is characterised by the improvement in motor skills. One of the developmental tasks in children is the ability to jump. Jumping plays an important role in the development of leg strength and balance. It is the gateway to more complex movements. In the physiotherapy clinic, we see a lot of difficulties in jumping performance in 5–7-year-old children. The aim of this study is to present the jumping ability, assessed by the Motor Proficiency Test (MOT) and the G-sensor examination of the vertical countermovement jump (CMJ) and countermovement jump with arms thrust (CMJAT) parameters. A total of 47 children (14 boys and 33 girls) were randomly recruited. The mean age was 5.5 years. The mean height was 113 cm and the mean weight was 19.7 kg. The children were divided into two groups according to their results. Children with low basic motor skills have the greatest difficulty with jumping tasks. In the CMJ jump, the take-off force was lower than in the CMJAT (p = 0.04). Most CMJAT parameters correlate with age, weight, and height. Height correlates most with children’s jumping performance. This study may be useful for sport educators and developmental researchers. The topic should be further explored and the CMJ and CMJAT parameters may be established as a basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomedical Sensors)
19 pages, 30001 KiB  
Article
Artificial Potential Field Based Trajectory Tracking for Quadcopter UAV Moving Targets
by Cezary Kownacki
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041343 - 19 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
The trajectory or moving-target tracking feature is desirable, because it can be used in various applications where the usefulness of UAVs is already proven. Tracking moving targets can also be applied in scenarios of cooperation between mobile ground-based and flying robots, where mobile [...] Read more.
The trajectory or moving-target tracking feature is desirable, because it can be used in various applications where the usefulness of UAVs is already proven. Tracking moving targets can also be applied in scenarios of cooperation between mobile ground-based and flying robots, where mobile ground-based robots could play the role of mobile landing pads. This article presents a novel proposition of an approach to position-tracking problems utilizing artificial potential fields (APF) for quadcopter UAVs, which, in contrast to well-known APF-based path planning methods, is a dynamic problem and must be carried out online while keeping the tracking error as low as possible. Also, a new flight control is proposed, which uses roll, pitch, and yaw angle control based on the velocity vector. This method not only allows the UAV to track a point where the potential function reaches its minimum but also enables the alignment of the course and velocity to the direction and speed given by the velocity vector from the APF. Simulation results present the possibilities of applying the APF method to holonomic UAVs such as quadcopters and show that such UAVs controlled on the basis of an APF behave as non-holonomic UAVs during 90° turns. This allows them and the onboard camera to be oriented toward the tracked target. In simulations, the AR Drone 2.0 model of the Parrot quadcopter is used, which will make it possible to easily verify the method in real flights in future research. Full article
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23 pages, 3301 KiB  
Article
Extending the Framework for Developing Intelligent Virtual Environments (FIVE) with Artifacts for Modeling Internet of Things Devices and a New Decentralized Federated Learning Based on Consensus for Dynamic Networks
by Miguel Rebollo, Jaime Andrés Rincon, Luís Hernández, Francisco Enguix and Carlos Carrascosa
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041342 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 521
Abstract
One of the main lines of research in distributed learning in recent years is the one related to Federated Learning (FL). In this work, a decentralized Federated Learning algorithm based on consensus (CoL) is applied to Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WANETs), where the agents [...] Read more.
One of the main lines of research in distributed learning in recent years is the one related to Federated Learning (FL). In this work, a decentralized Federated Learning algorithm based on consensus (CoL) is applied to Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WANETs), where the agents communicate with other agents to share their learning model as they are available to the wireless connection range. When deploying a set of agents, it is essential to study whether all the WANET agents will be reachable before the deployment. The paper proposes to explore it by generating a simulation close to the real world using a framework (FIVE) that allows the easy development and modification of simulations based on Unity and SPADE agents. A fruit orchard with autonomous tractors is presented as a case study. The paper also presents how and why the concept of artifact has been included in the above-mentioned framework as a way to highlight the importance of some devices used in the environment that have to be located in specific places to ensure the full connection of the system. This inclusion is the first step to allow Digital Twins to be modeled with this framework, now allowing a Digital Shadow of those devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Agents and Multiagent Systems for Sensor Applications)
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21 pages, 2489 KiB  
Review
Wearables for Monitoring and Postural Feedback in the Work Context: A Scoping Review
by Vânia Figueira, Sandra Silva, Inês Costa, Bruna Campos, João Salgado, Liliana Pinho, Marta Freitas, Paulo Carvalho, João Marques and Francisco Pinho
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041341 - 19 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Wearables offer a promising solution for simultaneous posture monitoring and/or corrective feedback. The main objective was to identify, synthesise, and characterise the wearables used in the workplace to monitor and postural feedback to workers. The PRISMA-ScR guidelines were followed. Studies were included between [...] Read more.
Wearables offer a promising solution for simultaneous posture monitoring and/or corrective feedback. The main objective was to identify, synthesise, and characterise the wearables used in the workplace to monitor and postural feedback to workers. The PRISMA-ScR guidelines were followed. Studies were included between 1 January 2000 and 22 March 2023 in Spanish, French, English, and Portuguese without geographical restriction. The databases selected for the research were PubMed®, Web of Science®, Scopus®, and Google Scholar®. Qualitative studies, theses, reviews, and meta-analyses were excluded. Twelve studies were included, involving a total of 304 workers, mostly health professionals (n = 8). The remaining studies covered workers in the industry (n = 2), in the construction (n = 1), and welders (n = 1). For assessment purposes, most studies used one (n = 5) or two sensors (n = 5) characterised as accelerometers (n = 7), sixaxial (n = 2) or nonaxialinertial measurement units (n = 3). The most common source of feedback was the sensor itself (n = 6) or smartphones (n = 4). Haptic feedback was the most prevalent (n = 6), followed by auditory (n = 5) and visual (n = 3). Most studies employed prototype wearables emphasising kinematic variables of human movement. Healthcare professionals were the primary focus of the study along with haptic feedback that proved to be the most common and effective method for correcting posture during work activities. Full article
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19 pages, 16321 KiB  
Article
A Novel Joint Denoising Method for Hydrophone Signal Based on Improved SGMD and WT
by Tianyu Xing, Xiaohao Wang, Kai Ni and Qian Zhou
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1340; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041340 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Underwater acoustic technology as an important means of exploring the oceans is receiving more attention. Denoising for underwater acoustic information in complex marine environments has become a hot research topic. In order to realize the hydrophone signal denoising, this paper proposes a joint [...] Read more.
Underwater acoustic technology as an important means of exploring the oceans is receiving more attention. Denoising for underwater acoustic information in complex marine environments has become a hot research topic. In order to realize the hydrophone signal denoising, this paper proposes a joint denoising method based on improved symplectic geometry modal decomposition (ISGMD) and wavelet threshold (WT). Firstly, the energy contribution (EC) is introduced into the SGMD as an iterative termination condition, which efficiently improves the denoising capability of SGMD and generates a reasonable number of symplectic geometry components (SGCs). Then spectral clustering (SC) is used to accurately aggregate SGCs into information clusters mixed-clusters, and noise clusters. Spectrum entropy (SE) is used to distinguish clusters quickly. Finally, the mixed clusters achieve the signal denoising by wavelet threshold. The useful information is reconstructed to achieve the original signal denoising. In the simulation experiment, the denoising effect of different denoising algorithms in the time domain and frequency domain is compared, and SNR and RMSE are used as evaluation indexes. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance. In the experiment of hydrophone, the denoising ability of the proposed algorithm is also verified. Full article
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18 pages, 4175 KiB  
Article
Semantic and Geometric-Aware Day-to-Night Image Translation Network
by Geonkyu Bang, Jinho Lee, Yuki Endo, Toshiaki Nishimori, Kenta Nakao and Shunsuke Kamijo
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041339 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Autonomous driving systems heavily depend on perception tasks for optimal performance. However, the prevailing datasets are primarily focused on scenarios with clear visibility (i.e., sunny and daytime). This concentration poses challenges in training deep-learning-based perception models for environments with adverse conditions (e.g., rainy [...] Read more.
Autonomous driving systems heavily depend on perception tasks for optimal performance. However, the prevailing datasets are primarily focused on scenarios with clear visibility (i.e., sunny and daytime). This concentration poses challenges in training deep-learning-based perception models for environments with adverse conditions (e.g., rainy and nighttime). In this paper, we propose an unsupervised network designed for the translation of images from day-to-night to solve the ill-posed problem of learning the mapping between domains with unpaired data. The proposed method involves extracting both semantic and geometric information from input images in the form of attention maps. We assume that the multi-task network can extract semantic and geometric information during the estimation of semantic segmentation and depth maps, respectively. The image-to-image translation network integrates the two distinct types of extracted information, employing them as spatial attention maps. We compare our method with related works both qualitatively and quantitatively. The proposed method shows both qualitative and qualitative improvements in visual presentation over related work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sensing, Imaging and Computing for Autonomous Driving)
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23 pages, 8576 KiB  
Article
Different Scenarios of Autonomous Operation of an Environmental Sensor Node Using a Piezoelectric-Vibration-Based Energy Harvester
by Sofiane Bouhedma, Jawad Bin Taufik, Fred Lange, Mohammed Ouali, Hermann Seitz and Dennis Hohlfeld
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1338; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041338 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
This paper delves into the application of vibration-based energy harvesting to power environmental sensor nodes, a critical component of modern data collection systems. These sensor nodes play a crucial role in structural health monitoring, providing essential data on external conditions that can affect [...] Read more.
This paper delves into the application of vibration-based energy harvesting to power environmental sensor nodes, a critical component of modern data collection systems. These sensor nodes play a crucial role in structural health monitoring, providing essential data on external conditions that can affect the health and performance of structures. We investigate the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters to sustainably power environmental wireless sensor nodes on the one hand. On the other hand, we exploit different approaches to minimize the sensor node’s power consumption and maximize its efficiency. The investigations consider various sensor node platforms and assess their performance under different voltage levels and broadcast frequencies. The findings reveal that optimized harvester designs enable real-time data broadcasting with short intervals, ranging from 1 to 3 s, expanding the horizons of environmental monitoring, and show that in case the system includes a battery as a backup plan, the battery’s lifetime can be extended up to 9 times. This work underscores the potential of vibration energy harvesting as a viable solution for powering sensor nodes, enhancing their autonomy, and reducing maintenance costs in remote and challenging environments. It opens doors to broader applications of sustainable energy sources in environmental monitoring and data collection systems. Full article
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17 pages, 3429 KiB  
Article
Regression-Based Machine Learning for Predicting Lifting Movement Pattern Change in People with Low Back Pain
by Trung C. Phan, Adrian Pranata, Joshua Farragher, Adam Bryant, Hung T. Nguyen and Rifai Chai
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041337 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Machine learning (ML) algorithms are crucial within the realm of healthcare applications. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of regression algorithms in predicting alterations in lifting movement patterns has not been conducted. This research represents a pilot investigation using regression-based machine learning [...] Read more.
Machine learning (ML) algorithms are crucial within the realm of healthcare applications. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of regression algorithms in predicting alterations in lifting movement patterns has not been conducted. This research represents a pilot investigation using regression-based machine learning techniques to forecast alterations in trunk, hip, and knee movements subsequent to a 12-week strength training for people who have low back pain (LBP). The system uses a feature extraction algorithm to calculate the range of motion in the sagittal plane for the knee, trunk, and hip and 12 different regression machine learning algorithms. The results show that Ensemble Tree with LSBoost demonstrated the utmost accuracy in prognosticating trunk movement. Meanwhile, the Ensemble Tree approach, specifically LSBoost, exhibited the highest predictive precision for hip movement. The Gaussian regression with the kernel chosen as exponential returned the highest prediction accuracy for knee movement. These regression models hold the potential to significantly enhance the precision of visualisation of the treatment output for individuals afflicted with LBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Wearables 2023)
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15 pages, 6423 KiB  
Article
Block Partitioning Information-Based CNN Post-Filtering for EVC Baseline Profile
by Kiho Choi
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041336 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The need for efficient video coding technology is more important than ever in the current scenario where video applications are increasing worldwide, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming widespread. In this context, it is necessary to carefully review the recently completed [...] Read more.
The need for efficient video coding technology is more important than ever in the current scenario where video applications are increasing worldwide, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming widespread. In this context, it is necessary to carefully review the recently completed MPEG-5 Essential Video Coding (EVC) standard because the EVC Baseline profile is customized to meet the specific requirements needed to process IoT video data in terms of low complexity. Nevertheless, the EVC Baseline profile has a notable disadvantage. Since it is a codec composed only of simple tools developed over 20 years, it tends to represent numerous coding artifacts. In particular, the presence of blocking artifacts at the block boundary is regarded as a critical issue that must be addressed. To address this, this paper proposes a post-filter using a block partitioning information-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The proposed method in the experimental results objectively shows an approximately 0.57 dB for All-Intra (AI) and 0.37 dB for Low-Delay (LD) improvements in each configuration by the proposed method when compared to the pre-post-filter video, and the enhanced PSNR results in an overall bitrate reduction of 11.62% for AI and 10.91% for LD in the Luma and Chroma components, respectively. Due to the huge improvement in the PSNR, the proposed method significantly improved the visual quality subjectively, particularly in blocking artifacts at the coding block boundary. Full article
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19 pages, 3824 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Urban Data Analysis: Leveraging Graph-Based Convolutional Neural Networks for a Visual Semantic Decision Support System
by Nikolaos Sideris, Georgios Bardis, Athanasios Voulodimos, Georgios Miaoulis and Djamchid Ghazanfarpour
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041335 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
The persistent increase in the magnitude of urban data, combined with the broad range of sensors from which it derives in modern urban environments, poses issues including data integration, visualization, and optimal utilization. The successful selection of suitable locations for predetermined commercial activities [...] Read more.
The persistent increase in the magnitude of urban data, combined with the broad range of sensors from which it derives in modern urban environments, poses issues including data integration, visualization, and optimal utilization. The successful selection of suitable locations for predetermined commercial activities and public utility services or the reuse of existing infrastructure arise as urban planning challenges to be addressed with the aid of the aforementioned data. In our previous work, we have integrated a multitude of publicly available real-world urban data in a visual semantic decision support environment, encompassing map-based data visualization with a visual query interface, while employing and comparing several classifiers for the selection of appropriate locations for establishing parking facilities. In the current work, we challenge the best representative of the previous approach, i.e., random forests, with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in combination with a graph-based representation of the urban input data, relying on the same dataset to ensure comparability of the results. This approach has been inspired by the inherent visual nature of urban data and the increased capability of CNNs to classify image-based data. The experimental results reveal an improvement in several performance indices, implying a promising potential for this specific combination in decision support for urban planning problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and New Trends in Global Metrology)
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18 pages, 41338 KiB  
Article
From CySkin to ProxySKIN: Design, Implementation and Testing of a Multi-Modal Robotic Skin for Human–Robot Interaction
by Francesco Giovinazzo, Francesco Grella, Marco Sartore, Manuela Adami, Riccardo Galletti and Giorgio Cannata
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041334 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 713
Abstract
The Industry 5.0 paradigm has a human-centered vision of the industrial scenario and foresees a close collaboration between humans and robots. Industrial manufacturing environments must be easily adaptable to different task requirements, possibly taking into account the ergonomics and production line flexibility. Therefore, [...] Read more.
The Industry 5.0 paradigm has a human-centered vision of the industrial scenario and foresees a close collaboration between humans and robots. Industrial manufacturing environments must be easily adaptable to different task requirements, possibly taking into account the ergonomics and production line flexibility. Therefore, external sensing infrastructures such as cameras and motion capture systems may not be sufficient or suitable as they limit the shop floor reconfigurability and increase setup costs. In this paper, we present the technological advancements leading to the realization of ProxySKIN, a skin-like sensory system based on networks of distributed proximity sensors and tactile sensors. This technology is designed to cover large areas of the robot body and to provide a comprehensive perception of the surrounding space. ProxySKIN architecture is built on top of CySkin, a flexible artificial skin conceived to provide robots with the sense of touch, and arrays of Time-of-Flight (ToF) sensors. We provide a characterization of the arrays of proximity sensors and we motivate the design choices that lead to ProxySKIN, analyzing the effects of light interference on a ToF, due to the activity of other sensing devices. The obtained results show that a large number of proximity sensors can be embedded in our distributed sensing architecture and incorporated onto the body of a robotic platform, opening new scenarios for complex applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies in Italy 2023)
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26 pages, 3866 KiB  
Article
Lightweight and Real-Time Infrared Image Processor Based on FPGA
by Xiaoqing Wang, Xiang He, Xiangyu Zhu, Fu Zheng and Jingqi Zhang
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041333 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 648
Abstract
This paper presents an FPGA-based lightweight and real-time infrared image processor based on a series of hardware-oriented lightweight algorithms. The two-point correction algorithm based on blackbody radiation is introduced to calibrate the non-uniformity of the sensor. With precomputed gain and offset matrices, the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an FPGA-based lightweight and real-time infrared image processor based on a series of hardware-oriented lightweight algorithms. The two-point correction algorithm based on blackbody radiation is introduced to calibrate the non-uniformity of the sensor. With precomputed gain and offset matrices, the design can achieve real-time non-uniformity correction with a resolution of 640×480. The blind pixel detection algorithm employs the first-level approximation to simplify multiple iterative computations. The blind pixel compensation algorithm in our design is constructed on the side-window-filtering method. The results of eight convolution kernels for side windows are computed simultaneously to improve the processing speed. Due to the proposed side-window-filtering-based blind pixel compensation algorithm, blind pixels can be effectively compensated while details in the image are preserved. Before image output, we also incorporated lightweight histogram equalization to make the processed image more easily observable to the human eyes. The proposed lightweight infrared image processor is implemented on Xilinx XC7A100T-2. Our proposed lightweight infrared image processor costs 10,894 LUTs, 9367 FFs, 4 BRAMs, and 5 DSP48. Under a 50 MHz clock, the processor achieves a speed of 30 frames per second at the cost of 1800 mW. The maximum operating frequency of our proposed processor can reach 186 MHz. Compared with existing similar works, our proposed infrared image processor incurs minimal resource overhead and has lower power consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Image Processing and Sensing Technologies)
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9 pages, 4967 KiB  
Communication
Design of Long-Life Wireless Near-Field Hydrogen Gas Sensor
by Xintao Deng, Jinwei Sun, Fuyuan Yang and Minggao Ouyang
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041332 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 552
Abstract
A compact wireless near-field hydrogen gas sensor is proposed, which detects leaking hydrogen near its source to achieve fast responses and high reliability. A semiconductor-type sensing element is implemented in the sensor, which can provide a significant response in 100 ms when stimulated [...] Read more.
A compact wireless near-field hydrogen gas sensor is proposed, which detects leaking hydrogen near its source to achieve fast responses and high reliability. A semiconductor-type sensing element is implemented in the sensor, which can provide a significant response in 100 ms when stimulated by pure hydrogen. The overall response time is shortened by orders of magnitude compared to conventional sensors according to simulation results, which will be within 200 ms, compared with over 25 s for spatial concentration sensors under the worst conditions. Over 1 year maintenance intervals are enabled by wireless design based on the Bluetooth low energy protocol. The average energy consumption during a single alarm process is 153 μJ/s. The whole sensor is integrated on a 20 × 26 mm circuit board for compact use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Sensors)
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18 pages, 8506 KiB  
Article
FV-MViT: Mobile Vision Transformer for Finger Vein Recognition
by Xiongjun Li, Jin Feng, Jilin Cai and Guowen Lin
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041331 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 605
Abstract
In addressing challenges related to high parameter counts and limited training samples for finger vein recognition, we present the FV-MViT model. It serves as a lightweight deep learning solution, emphasizing high accuracy, portable design, and low latency. The FV-MViT introduces two key components. [...] Read more.
In addressing challenges related to high parameter counts and limited training samples for finger vein recognition, we present the FV-MViT model. It serves as a lightweight deep learning solution, emphasizing high accuracy, portable design, and low latency. The FV-MViT introduces two key components. The Mul-MV2 Block utilizes a dual-path inverted residual connection structure for multi-scale convolutions, extracting additional local features. Simultaneously, the Enhanced MobileViT Block eliminates the large-scale convolution block at the beginning of the original MobileViT Block. It converts the Transformer’s self-attention into separable self-attention with linear complexity, optimizing the back end of the original MobileViT Block with depth-wise separable convolutions. This aims to extract global features and effectively reduce parameter counts and feature extraction times. Additionally, we introduce a soft target center cross-entropy loss function to enhance generalization and increase accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the FV-MViT achieves a recognition accuracy of 99.53% and 100.00% on the Shandong University (SDU) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (USM) datasets, with equal error rates of 0.47% and 0.02%, respectively. The model has a parameter count of 5.26 million and exhibits a latency of 10.00 milliseconds from the sample input to the recognition output. Comparison with state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods reveals competitive performance for FV-MViT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biometrics Recognition Systems)
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15 pages, 496 KiB  
Review
Anomaly Detection Methods in Autonomous Robotic Missions
by Shivoh Chirayil Nandakumar, Daniel Mitchell, Mustafa Suphi Erden, David Flynn and Theodore Lim
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041330 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Since 2015, there has been an increase in articles on anomaly detection in robotic systems, reflecting its growing importance in improving the robustness and reliability of the increasingly utilized autonomous robots. This review paper investigates the literature on the detection of anomalies in [...] Read more.
Since 2015, there has been an increase in articles on anomaly detection in robotic systems, reflecting its growing importance in improving the robustness and reliability of the increasingly utilized autonomous robots. This review paper investigates the literature on the detection of anomalies in Autonomous Robotic Missions (ARMs). It reveals different perspectives on anomaly and juxtaposition to fault detection. To reach a consensus, we infer a unified understanding of anomalies that encapsulate their various characteristics observed in ARMs and propose a classification of anomalies in terms of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal elements based on their fundamental features. Further, the paper discusses the implications of the proposed unified understanding and classification in ARMs and provides future directions. We envisage a study surrounding the specific use of the term anomaly, and methods for their detection could contribute to and accelerate the research and development of a universal anomaly detection system for ARMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensors Technologies Applied in Mobile Robotics: 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Benchmarking Artificial Neural Network Architectures for High-Performance Spiking Neural Networks
by Riadul Islam, Patrick Majurski, Jun Kwon, Anurag Sharma and Sri Ranga Sai Krishna Tummala
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1329; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041329 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Organizations managing high-performance computing systems face a multitude of challenges, including overarching concerns such as overall energy consumption, microprocessor clock frequency limitations, and the escalating costs associated with chip production. Evidently, processor speeds have plateaued over the last decade, persisting within the range [...] Read more.
Organizations managing high-performance computing systems face a multitude of challenges, including overarching concerns such as overall energy consumption, microprocessor clock frequency limitations, and the escalating costs associated with chip production. Evidently, processor speeds have plateaued over the last decade, persisting within the range of 2 GHz to 5 GHz. Scholars assert that brain-inspired computing holds substantial promise for mitigating these challenges. The spiking neural network (SNN) particularly stands out for its commendable power efficiency when juxtaposed with conventional design paradigms. Nevertheless, our scrutiny has brought to light several pivotal challenges impeding the seamless implementation of large-scale neural networks (NNs) on silicon. These challenges encompass the absence of automated tools, the need for multifaceted domain expertise, and the inadequacy of existing algorithms to efficiently partition and place extensive SNN computations onto hardware infrastructure. In this paper, we posit the development of an automated tool flow capable of transmuting any NN into an SNN. This undertaking involves the creation of a novel graph-partitioning algorithm designed to strategically place SNNs on a network-on-chip (NoC), thereby paving the way for future energy-efficient and high-performance computing paradigms. The presented methodology showcases its effectiveness by successfully transforming ANN architectures into SNNs with a marginal average error penalty of merely 2.65%. The proposed graph-partitioning algorithm enables a 14.22% decrease in inter-synaptic communication and an 87.58% reduction in intra-synaptic communication, on average, underscoring the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in optimizing NN communication pathways. Compared to a baseline graph-partitioning algorithm, the proposed approach exhibits an average decrease of 79.74% in latency and a 14.67% reduction in energy consumption. Using existing NoC tools, the energy-latency product of SNN architectures is, on average, 82.71% lower than that of the baseline architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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19 pages, 1127 KiB  
Review
A Review and Comparative Analysis of Relevant Approaches of Zero Trust Network Model
by Poonam Dhiman, Neha Saini, Yonis Gulzar, Sherzod Turaev, Amandeep Kaur, Khair Ul Nisa and Yasir Hamid
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041328 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
The Zero Trust safety architecture emerged as an intriguing approach for overcoming the shortcomings of standard network security solutions. This extensive survey study provides a meticulous explanation of the underlying principles of Zero Trust, as well as an assessment of the many strategies [...] Read more.
The Zero Trust safety architecture emerged as an intriguing approach for overcoming the shortcomings of standard network security solutions. This extensive survey study provides a meticulous explanation of the underlying principles of Zero Trust, as well as an assessment of the many strategies and possibilities for effective implementation. The survey begins by examining the role of authentication and access control within Zero Trust Architectures, and subsequently investigates innovative authentication, as well as access control solutions across different scenarios. It more deeply explores traditional techniques for encryption, micro-segmentation, and security automation, emphasizing their importance in achieving a secure Zero Trust environment. Zero Trust Architecture is explained in brief, along with the Taxonomy of Zero Trust Network Features. This review article provides useful insights into the Zero Trust paradigm, its approaches, problems, and future research objectives for scholars, practitioners, and policymakers. This survey contributes to the growth and implementation of secure network architectures in critical infrastructures by developing a deeper knowledge of Zero Trust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edge Sensing and Computing in 6G)
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18 pages, 5219 KiB  
Review
Gas Imaging with Uncooled Thermal Imager
by Mengjie Zhang, Guanghai Chen, Peng Lin, Daming Dong and Leizi Jiao
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041327 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Gas imaging has become one of the research hotspots in the field of gas detection due to its significant advantages, such as high efficiency, large range, and dynamic visualization. It is widely used in industries such as natural gas transportation, chemical, and electric [...] Read more.
Gas imaging has become one of the research hotspots in the field of gas detection due to its significant advantages, such as high efficiency, large range, and dynamic visualization. It is widely used in industries such as natural gas transportation, chemical, and electric power industries. With the development of infrared detector technology, uncooled thermal imagers are undergoing a developmental stage of technological advancement and widespread application. This article introduces a gas imaging principle and radiation transfer model, focusing on passive imaging technology and active imaging technology. Combined with the actual analysis, the application scenarios using uncooled thermal imaging cameras for gas imaging measurement are analyzed. Finally, the limitations and challenges of the development of gas imaging technology are analyzed. Full article
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10 pages, 2022 KiB  
Communication
Monitoring the Velocity of Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Microwires
by Alexander Chizhik, Paula Corte-Leon, Valentina Zhukova, Juan Mari Blanco and Arcady Zhukov
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041326 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
An approach was proposed to control the displacement of domain walls in magnetic microwires, which are employed in magnetic sensors. The velocity of the domain wall can be altered by the interaction of two magnetic microwires of distinct types. Thorough investigations were conducted [...] Read more.
An approach was proposed to control the displacement of domain walls in magnetic microwires, which are employed in magnetic sensors. The velocity of the domain wall can be altered by the interaction of two magnetic microwires of distinct types. Thorough investigations were conducted utilizing fluxmetric, Sixtus–Tonks, and magneto-optical techniques. The magneto-optical examinations revealed transformation in the surface structure of the domain wall and facilitated the determination of the mechanism of external influence on the movement of domain walls in magnetic microwires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Future Trends of Magnetic Sensors)
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18 pages, 4670 KiB  
Article
GA-Dueling DQN Jamming Decision-Making Method for Intra-Pulse Frequency Agile Radar
by Liqun Xia, Lulu Wang, Zhidong Xie and Xin Gao
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041325 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Optimizing jamming strategies is crucial for enhancing the performance of cognitive jamming systems in dynamic electromagnetic environments. The emergence of frequency-agile radars, capable of changing the carrier frequency within or between pulses, poses significant challenges for the jammer to make intelligent decisions and [...] Read more.
Optimizing jamming strategies is crucial for enhancing the performance of cognitive jamming systems in dynamic electromagnetic environments. The emergence of frequency-agile radars, capable of changing the carrier frequency within or between pulses, poses significant challenges for the jammer to make intelligent decisions and adapt to the dynamic environment. This paper focuses on researching intelligent jamming decision-making algorithms for Intra-Pulse Frequency Agile Radar using deep reinforcement learning. Intra-Pulse Frequency Agile Radar achieves frequency agility at the sub-pulse level, creating a significant frequency agility space. This presents challenges for traditional jamming decision-making methods to rapidly learn its changing patterns through interactions. By employing Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) to capture long-term dependencies in sequence data, together with the attention mechanism, this paper proposes a GA-Dueling DQN (GRU-Attention-based Dueling Deep Q Network) method for jamming frequency selection. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method outperforms traditional Q-learning, DQN, and Dueling DQN methods in terms of jamming effectiveness. It exhibits the fastest convergence speed and reduced reliance on prior knowledge, highlighting its significant advantages in jamming the subpulse-level frequency-agile radar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Active Sensing and Anti-jamming)
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18 pages, 11020 KiB  
Article
Semantic Segmentation of Remote Sensing Data Based on Channel Attention and Feature Information Entropy
by Sining Duan, Jingyi Zhao, Xinyi Huang and Shuhe Zhao
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041324 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 501
Abstract
The common channel attention mechanism maps feature statistics to feature weights. However, the effectiveness of this mechanism may not be assured in remotely sensing images due to statistical differences across multiple bands. This paper proposes a novel channel attention mechanism based on feature [...] Read more.
The common channel attention mechanism maps feature statistics to feature weights. However, the effectiveness of this mechanism may not be assured in remotely sensing images due to statistical differences across multiple bands. This paper proposes a novel channel attention mechanism based on feature information called the feature information entropy attention mechanism (FEM). The FEM constructs a relationship between features based on feature information entropy and then maps this relationship to their importance. The Vaihingen dataset and OpenEarthMap dataset are selected for experiments. The proposed method was compared with the squeeze-and-excitation mechanism (SEM), the convolutional block attention mechanism (CBAM), and the frequency channel attention mechanism (FCA). Compared with these three channel attention mechanisms, the mIoU of the FEM in the Vaihingen dataset is improved by 0.90%, 1.10%, and 0.40%, and in the OpenEarthMap dataset, it is improved by 2.30%, 2.20%, and 2.10%, respectively. The proposed channel attention mechanism in this paper shows better performance in remote sensing land use classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Satellite Remote Sensing in Geospatial Monitoring)
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0 pages, 2351 KiB  
Article
Optimal Excitation and Readout of Resonators Used as Wireless Passive Sensors
by Leonhard M. Reindl, Taimur Aftab, Gunnar Gidion, Thomas Ostertag, Wei Luo and Stefan Johann Rupitsch
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041323 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Resonators are passive time-invariant components that do not produce a frequency shift. However, they respond to an excitation signal close to resonance with an oscillation at their natural frequencies with exponentially decreasing amplitudes. If resonators are connected to antennas, they form purely passive [...] Read more.
Resonators are passive time-invariant components that do not produce a frequency shift. However, they respond to an excitation signal close to resonance with an oscillation at their natural frequencies with exponentially decreasing amplitudes. If resonators are connected to antennas, they form purely passive sensors that can be read remotely. In this work, we model the external excitation of a resonator with different excitation signals and its subsequent decay characteristics analytically as well as numerically. The analytical modeling explains the properties of the resonator during transient response and decay behavior. The analytical modeling clarifies how natural oscillations are generated in a linear time-invariant system, even if their spectrum was not included in the stimulation spectrum. In addition, it enables the readout signals to be optimized in terms of duration and bandwidth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Resonator-Based Sensors)
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15 pages, 1559 KiB  
Article
LRPL-VIO: A Lightweight and Robust Visual–Inertial Odometry with Point and Line Features
by Feixiang Zheng, Lu Zhou, Wanbiao Lin, Jingyang Liu and Lei Sun
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041322 - 18 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Visual-inertial odometry (VIO) algorithms, fusing various features such as points and lines, are able to improve their performance in challenging scenes while the running time severely increases. In this paper, we propose a novel lightweight point–line visual–inertial odometry algorithm to solve this problem, [...] Read more.
Visual-inertial odometry (VIO) algorithms, fusing various features such as points and lines, are able to improve their performance in challenging scenes while the running time severely increases. In this paper, we propose a novel lightweight point–line visual–inertial odometry algorithm to solve this problem, called LRPL-VIO. Firstly, a fast line matching method is proposed based on the assumption that the photometric values of endpoints and midpoints are invariant between consecutive frames, which greatly reduces the time consumption of the front end. Then, an efficient filter-based state estimation framework is designed to finish information fusion (point, line, and inertial). Fresh measurements of line features with good tracking quality are selected for state estimation using a unique feature selection scheme, which improves the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Finally, validation experiments are conducted on public datasets and in real-world tests to evaluate the performance of LRPL-VIO and the results show that we outperform other state-of-the-art algorithms especially in terms of speed and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensors and Robotics)
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21 pages, 9454 KiB  
Article
Qhali: A Humanoid Robot for Assisting in Mental Health Treatment
by Gustavo Pérez-Zuñiga, Diego Arce, Sareli Gibaja, Marcelo Alvites, Consuelo Cano, Marlene Bustamante, Ingrid Horna, Renato Paredes and Francisco Cuellar
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041321 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
In recent years, social assistive robots have gained significant acceptance in healthcare settings, particularly for tasks such as patient care and monitoring. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of the expressive humanoid robot, Qhali, with a focus on its industrial design, essential components, [...] Read more.
In recent years, social assistive robots have gained significant acceptance in healthcare settings, particularly for tasks such as patient care and monitoring. This paper offers a comprehensive overview of the expressive humanoid robot, Qhali, with a focus on its industrial design, essential components, and validation in a controlled environment. The industrial design phase encompasses research, ideation, design, manufacturing, and implementation. Subsequently, the mechatronic system is detailed, covering sensing, actuation, control, energy, and software interface. Qhali’s capabilities include autonomous execution of routines for mental health promotion and psychological testing. The software platform enables therapist-directed interventions, allowing the robot to convey emotional gestures through joint and head movements and simulate various facial expressions for more engaging interactions. Finally, with the robot fully operational, an initial behavioral experiment was conducted to validate Qhali’s capability to deliver telepsychological interventions. The findings from this preliminary study indicate that participants reported enhancements in their emotional well-being, along with positive outcomes in their perception of the psychological intervention conducted with the humanoid robot. Full article
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15 pages, 1798 KiB  
Article
From Local Issues to Global Impacts: Evidence of Air Pollution for Romania and Turkey
by Tugce Pekdogan, Mihaela Tinca Udriștioiu, Hasan Yildizhan and Arman Ameen
Sensors 2024, 24(4), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24041320 - 18 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
Air pollution significantly threatens human health and natural ecosystems and requires urgent attention from decision makers. The fight against air pollution begins with the rigorous monitoring of its levels, followed by intelligent statistical analysis and the application of advanced machine learning algorithms. To [...] Read more.
Air pollution significantly threatens human health and natural ecosystems and requires urgent attention from decision makers. The fight against air pollution begins with the rigorous monitoring of its levels, followed by intelligent statistical analysis and the application of advanced machine learning algorithms. To effectively reduce air pollution, decision makers must focus on reducing primary sources such as industrial plants and obsolete vehicles, as well as policies that encourage the adoption of clean energy sources. In this study, data analysis was performed for the first time to evaluate air pollution based on the SPSS program. Correlation coefficients between meteorological parameters and particulate matter concentrations (PM1, PM2.5, PM10) were calculated in two urban regions of Romania (Craiova and Drobeta-Turnu Severin) and Turkey (Adana). This study establishes strong relationships between PM concentrations and meteorological parameters with correlation coefficients ranging from −0.617 (between temperature and relative humidity) to 0.998 (between PMs). It shows negative correlations between temperature and particulate matter (−0.241 in Romania and −0.173 in Turkey) and the effects of humidity ranging from moderately positive correlations with PMs (up to 0.360 in Turkey), highlighting the valuable insights offered by independent PM sensor networks in assessing and improving air quality. Full article
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