Map Space Modeling Method Reflecting Safety Margin in Coastal Water Based on Electronic Chart for Path Planning
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Background Theory
2.1. Obstacles Area in Coastal Waters
2.2. Safety Margin from Obstacles Area
2.2.1. Maneuvering Margin Space
2.2.2. Bumper Margin Space
2.2.3. Additional Safety Margin Space
2.3. Safety Margin Range
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Process Flow
3.2. Set of the Electronic Chart Range
3.3. Set the Safety Depth Boundaries on the Electronic Navigational Chart
3.4. Segmentation of Obstacle Area on the Chart Image
3.5. Extract of Obstacle Boundaries on the Binary Image
3.6. Generated Obstacle Boundaries
 If alpha > 0, it is an ordinary closed disk of radius 1/alpha;
 If alpha = 0, it is a halfplane;
 If alpha < 0, it is the complement of a closed disk of radius −1/alpha.
 For each point ${P}_{i}$ in our point set, we create a vertex ${V}_{i}$.
 We create an edge between two vertices, ${V}_{i}$. and ${V}_{j}$, whenever there exists a generalized disk of radius 1/alpha containing the entire point set, and which has the property that ${P}_{i}$ and ${P}_{j}$ lie on its boundary.
 If $\alpha $ = 0, then the alpha shape associated with the finite point set is its ordinary convex hull.
3.7. The Obstacle Boundaries Processing Incorporating the Safety Margin
4. Experiment Results and Discussions
5. Conclusions
 The concepts of minimum safety margin through the UKC, the ship’s maneuvering characteristics, and bumper area were incorporated into the map space for path finding. It was confirmed that a route with minimum safety from obstacles was created.
 The concave hull algorithm was applied to simplify the boundary in the obstacle configuration space. It was confirmed that the loss area was minimized in the boundary configuration of obstacles; furthermore, it was possible to perform an efficient search in path finding, compared with the convex hull algorithm.
 As the range of the target sea area increases, it may not be possible to express the detailed shape of the obstacle area when creating the map space.
 Because only vessels in a specific coastal area were included, the results may not be extensible to other geographical locations.
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Author (Year)  Achievement  Map Representation Method  Approach  

Classification  Considering Factor  
Lee et al. [6] (2019)  Shortest route on coastal  Cell decomposition 


Ari et al. [7] (2013)  Shortest route on coastal  Cell decomposition 


Ozkan et al. [8] (2019)  Composition of obstacle  Roadmap 


Lee et al. [9] (2017)  Shortest route on coastal  Cell decomposition Roadmap 


Shi et al. [10] (2018)  Composition of obstacle  Roadmap 


Masaudi [11] (2017)  Reduction of calculation time  Roadmap 


Kim and Park [12] (2010)  Composition of obstacle  Roadmap 


Lim et al. [13] (2019)  Reduction of calculation time  Roadmap 


Description  Speed  Wave  Outer Channel  Bottom 

$\mathrm{Depth}(h$)  All  Low swell $({H}_{s}<1\mathrm{m})$  $1.15Tto1.2T$  Mud: None Sand/Clay: 0.5 m Rock/Coral: 1.0 m 
Moderate swell $(1\mathrm{m}{H}_{s}1\mathrm{m})$  $1.2Tto1.3T$  
Heavy swell $({H}_{s}>2\mathrm{m})$  $1.3Tto1.4T$ 
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© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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Jang, D.u.; Kim, J.s. Map Space Modeling Method Reflecting Safety Margin in Coastal Water Based on Electronic Chart for Path Planning. Sensors 2023, 23, 1723. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031723
Jang Du, Kim Js. Map Space Modeling Method Reflecting Safety Margin in Coastal Water Based on Electronic Chart for Path Planning. Sensors. 2023; 23(3):1723. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031723
Chicago/Turabian StyleJang, Daun, and Joosung Kim. 2023. "Map Space Modeling Method Reflecting Safety Margin in Coastal Water Based on Electronic Chart for Path Planning" Sensors 23, no. 3: 1723. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031723