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Diversity, Volume 15, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 116 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The discovery of new fossil rhynchosaur specimens from the Late Triassic in Wyoming, USA, necessitated a description of the new fossils and re-description of the rhynchosaur fossil USNM 494329. Combined, these form the basis for a new rhynchosaur species, Beesiiwo cooowuse gen. et sp. nov. The specimens were found on the traditional lands of the Northern Arapaho people. Tribal elders bestowed the first scientific name in the Arapaho language to this new taxon. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Wyoming rhynchosaurs are early diverging members of Hyperodapedontinae, a globally distributed clade that went extinct ca. 227 Ma. The presence of B. cooowuse supports an age no younger than ca. 227 Ma, filling an important temporal gap in the Late Triassic strata of the western USA. View this paper
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20 pages, 1740 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Impact of Headstarting on the Critically Endangered Spoon-Billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea
by Egor Y. Loktionov, Roland A. Digby, Nickolay N. Yakushev, Ivan A. Shepelev, Jodie P. Clements, Pavel S. Tomkovich, Nigel S. Jarrett, Nigel A. Clark, Rhys E. Green, Elena G. Lappo and Evgeny E. Syroechkovskiy
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040584 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Headstarting is a conservation approach that suggests offering an advantage to a population by improving egg production, survival of embryos and/or juveniles. In this article, we are providing the quantitative data obtained during 10 years for different stages of headstarting (production of eggs [...] Read more.
Headstarting is a conservation approach that suggests offering an advantage to a population by improving egg production, survival of embryos and/or juveniles. In this article, we are providing the quantitative data obtained during 10 years for different stages of headstarting (production of eggs per pair, hatching and fledging rates) and the resulting impact (survival to maturity, philopatry rate, sex ratio, apparent survival, growth/decline rate) on the local population of the critically endangered spoon-billed sandpiper. We have shown that headstarting gains are reduced over time from fledging to long-term recruitment to the local breeding population. The possible reasons for this reduction are suggested and discussed. The unexpected finding was a drastic difference in sex ratios of the new recruits, which was about even for headstarting, but strongly male-biased for wild-reared birds. We suggest this happens due to increased mortality of female chicks in nature. We have also shown only headstarting could stop the global decline of the species, particularly once the suggested improvements are implemented and the number of pairs involved is scaled up. Headstarting also had a significant social effect due to the involvement of increasing numbers of people both in the local communities in Chukotka and from many countries on the flyway into searching for marked birds and learning about waders, raising awareness about ecological problems on the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Thus, it has made the need for conservation actions on the flyway more obvious and sensible. Full article
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17 pages, 4141 KiB  
Article
Barranca variabilis sp. nov.—A New Terrestrial Alga of the Genus Barranca (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyta) from the Baikal Region (Russia)
by Irina N. Egorova, Nina V. Kulakova, Olga N. Boldina and Galina S. Tupikova
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040583 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Filamentous green chaetophoralean algae are distributed mainly in aquatic ecosystems, less known from terrestrial habitats. Many of them have a complicated thalli and complex life cycles that make it difficult to determine these organisms by morphology. Description of new representatives of the Chaetophorales [...] Read more.
Filamentous green chaetophoralean algae are distributed mainly in aquatic ecosystems, less known from terrestrial habitats. Many of them have a complicated thalli and complex life cycles that make it difficult to determine these organisms by morphology. Description of new representatives of the Chaetophorales continues. In this study, we have explored the filamentous green alga IRK–A 341 from soil of the Baikal Region by light and electron microscopy along with molecular phylogeny. Based on the results of morphological, ecological, and molecular phylogenetic analyses (18S–28S rDNA, tufA), we described the studied alga as the new species, Barranca variabilis sp. nov. The study complements the data on the diversity of soils green filamentous algae, and their biogeography. For the first time, the data on the structure of the cell walls and the cell ultrastructure of Barranca were established. The information on the morphology of the reproductive and resting cells is updated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Biogeography of Terrestrial Algae and Cyanobacteria)
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15 pages, 5531 KiB  
Review
Where the Immatures of Triassic Diptera Developed
by Elena D. Lukashevich
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040582 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Immature Diptera are more diverse and abundant in fresh water than any other insect order. The question arises whether the earliest dipterans, known from the Upper Buntsandstein of Europe (early Anisian, Middle Triassic), already developed in water and whether such mode of life [...] Read more.
Immature Diptera are more diverse and abundant in fresh water than any other insect order. The question arises whether the earliest dipterans, known from the Upper Buntsandstein of Europe (early Anisian, Middle Triassic), already developed in water and whether such mode of life was inherited from the ancestor of the order or if, alternatively, the dipteran larvae were ancestrally terrestrial. Nematoceran immatures have become common and diverse in the Mesozoic fossil record since the Middle Jurassic, but the vast majority of them represent only two culicomorphan families, Chaoboridae and Chironomidae. Earlier records and records of immatures of other families from the Mesozoic are extremely rare. A total of four larvae and about 30 pupae have been described from Anisian assemblages of France and Spain. Among these, one larva clearly belongs to Culicomorpha, the infraorder most closely associated with fresh waters, and one larva to Bibionomorpha, the infraorder most closely associated with terrestrial habitats, while the rest are hard to classify. Nevertheless, most of the pupae are morphologically similar to the semi-aquatic pupae of extant Limoniidae and Ptychopteridae from wet habitats. The oligopneustic respiratory systems of the Anisian larvae and their apparently allochthonous burial also suggest their semi-aquatic development, which appears to have been the ancestral mode of life of Diptera. The absence of dipteran immatures in lacustrine Konservat-Lagerstätten of the Madygen and the Cow Branch Formations (Ladinian–Carnian and Norian, respectively) is explained by the aquatic conditions being unfavorable for insect immatures and invertebrates in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleoecology of Insects)
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14 pages, 6369 KiB  
Article
Who Lives in the Hot Heart of the Cold Sea? A New Species of Provanna (Caenogastropoda: Provannidae) from the Hydrothermal Zone of Piip Volcano, Northwestern Pacific
by Ivan O. Nekhaev
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040581 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1648
Abstract
The benthic macrofauna of Arctic and subarctic seas is mainly represented by widespread species and is generally devoid of endemics. The exceptions are reduced habitats, such as cold seeps, hydrothermal areas, and wood falls, which include endemics of at least the species level. [...] Read more.
The benthic macrofauna of Arctic and subarctic seas is mainly represented by widespread species and is generally devoid of endemics. The exceptions are reduced habitats, such as cold seeps, hydrothermal areas, and wood falls, which include endemics of at least the species level. A detailed study and analysis of such endemics allows us to understand the mechanisms of colonization and to assess the age of the fauna of high-latitude marine regions. Here, the new species Provanna annae sp. nov. is described from the geothermal zone of the Piip volcano in the Bering Sea (subarctic Pacific) based on the morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. The new species appears to be the northernmost and one of the most shallow-water species among the known representatives of the family and is suggested to be endemic to the region. The new species is related to a group of Provanna species from reducing habitats off Japan. Composition of the gut content indicates that the new species bottom sediments. Bacteria are found on the gills of the mollusc and are probably symbionts that also provide nutrition. This type of mixotrophic feeding is rare in gastropods and may be a unique feature among Caenogastropoda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics, Phylogeography, Evolution and Conservation of Molluscs)
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14 pages, 2277 KiB  
Article
Application of Wheat Straw Compost Mixed with Chemical Fertilizer Regulates Soil Bacterial Community Diversity in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Plantation
by Haiyan Fu, Dapeng Song, Kunpeng Wang, Fengxiang Fang, Shunying Han, Fengshan Yang and Shibo Ding
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040580 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Biofertilizers have been suggested as alternatives to synthetic fertilizers, which could reduce soil degradation brought on by excessive chemical fertilization and have an impact on the bacterial diversity and community in the soil. The diversity and community of soil bacteria in tea plantations [...] Read more.
Biofertilizers have been suggested as alternatives to synthetic fertilizers, which could reduce soil degradation brought on by excessive chemical fertilization and have an impact on the bacterial diversity and community in the soil. The diversity and community of soil bacteria in tea plantations treated with wheat straw compost have, however, received relatively little attention. In this research, a two-year field trial was run to examine the effects of applying wheat straw compost on the characteristics of the soil and the quality of the tea. We also used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the response of the soil bacterial community, and Spearman’s rank correlation was used to estimate the relationship between the soil bacterial community, soil characteristics, and tea quality. It was noticed that applying chemical fertilizer along with compost increased the fertility of the soil and the quality of the tea. Based on a two-year thorough data analysis, the T4 treatment (compost fertilizers 15,000 kg ha−1 + chemical fertilizers 1050 kg ha−1, chemical fertilizer reduction 30%) was determined to be the best group. The diversity and community makeup of soil bacteria were impacted by fertilization management. After the initial compost replacement, soils with compost had a greater bacterial richness than soils with inorganic fertilizers. After the second compost substitution, PCoA analysis revealed that compost fertilizer could be easily differentiated from chemical fertilizer. In 2019, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Patescibacteria were the most prevalent bacterial phyla. In 2020, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi overtook Bacteroidetes and Patescibacteria as the two major bacterial phyla. In addition to increasing the diversity of soil bacteria and having an impact on the bacterial population, the application of wheat straw compost mixed with chemical fertilizers can also control the soil’s characteristics and the quality of the tea produced in tea plantations. So, as a fertilization way with less environmental impact, wheat straw compost fertilization can be used in tea plantations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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23 pages, 4423 KiB  
Article
Fungal Diversity and Dynamics during Long-Term Immersion of Conventional and Biodegradable Plastics in the Marine Environment
by Aurélie Philippe, Cyril Noël, Boris Eyheraguibel, Jean-François Briand, Ika Paul-Pont, Jean-François Ghiglione, Emmanuel Coton and Gaëtan Burgaud
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040579 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Plastics are associated with a worldwide pollution crisis, with strong negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In marine environments, various organisms are colonizing plastic debris, but few studies have focused on fungal communities despite their non-trivial ecological roles in the marine [...] Read more.
Plastics are associated with a worldwide pollution crisis, with strong negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In marine environments, various organisms are colonizing plastic debris, but few studies have focused on fungal communities despite their non-trivial ecological roles in the marine environment. In this study, different types of plastics (biodegradable and conventional) immersed in marine natural environments and under laboratory controlled settings were collected after long-term colonization. Using a metabarcoding approach targeting two genetic markers, namely, the ITS2 region and the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene, we highlighted that fungal communities associated with plastic polymers were distinct from those found in the surrounding seawater. They also differed significantly between sampling locations and the nature of immersed polymers, indicating that fungal colonization was impacted by the sites and types of plastics, with clear dissimilarities between conventional and biodegradable polymers. Specifically for the conventional PVC polymer (Polyvinyl chloride), we also observed the successive stages of biofilm development and maturation after long-term immersion in seawater. A noticeable change in the fungal communities was observed around 30–40 days in natural settings, suggesting a colonization dynamic likely associated with a transition from biofilm formation to distinct communities likely associated with biofouling. Overall, this study strengthens the idea that the fungal kingdom is an integrated part of the “plastisphere”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Diversity)
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11 pages, 5815 KiB  
Communication
A New Record of Pinctada fucata (Bivalvia: Pterioida: Pteriidae) in Mischief Reef: A Potential Invasive Species in the Nansha Islands, China
by Binbin Shan, Zhenghua Deng, Shengwei Ma, Dianrong Sun, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Qiaer Wu and Gang Yu
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040578 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Mischief Reef is located in the eastern Nansha Islands of the South China Sea. With increasingly intense anthropogenic disturbance, Pinctada fucata, a previously unrecorded species in the reef, has occurred in the region. In this study, we identified and described the occurrence [...] Read more.
Mischief Reef is located in the eastern Nansha Islands of the South China Sea. With increasingly intense anthropogenic disturbance, Pinctada fucata, a previously unrecorded species in the reef, has occurred in the region. In this study, we identified and described the occurrence of P. fucata in Mischief Reef based on morphology and molecular markers. Furthermore, we performed a population genetics analysis of seven P. fucata populations of the South China Sea. All P. fucata populations showed significant high-level genetic diversity, but the differentiation among P. fucata populations was small. There was an FST value close to zero (−0.0083) between the Lingshui and Mischief Reef populations. Our results hint that Lingshui may be one of the potential sources of P. fucata to Mischief. In addition, we discussed the possible cause of the mass occurrence of P. fucata. The present study serves as a warning that anthropogenic disturbances have disrupted the local ecosystem in Mischief Reef. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Biogeography of Marine Benthos)
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20 pages, 3120 KiB  
Article
Description of a New Species of Parathalestris Brady & Robertson, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Thalestridae) from China, with a Key to Its Affiliated Species Group
by Yihong Wu, Lin Ma and Qi Kou
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040577 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
A new species belonging to the genus Parathalestris Brady & Robertson, 1873 was identified and described here based on samples recently collected from a survey on fouling organisms at the Zhonggang wharf in Qingdao, China. The new species differs from its congeners in [...] Read more.
A new species belonging to the genus Parathalestris Brady & Robertson, 1873 was identified and described here based on samples recently collected from a survey on fouling organisms at the Zhonggang wharf in Qingdao, China. The new species differs from its congeners in the following characteristics: caudal rami 2.0 times longer than wide, with bulbous setae II and setae III of caudal ramus issuing terminally and laterodistally, respectively; exopod of antenna two-segmented, with two setae on first segment and four setae on second one;maxilla with two bipinnate setae on proximal endite, and three spinulose setae on middle and distal endites; basis of maxilliped with concave inner edge; P1 exopod and endopod approximately same length, enp-1 about 6.7 times as long as greatest width, with inner seta reaching proximal 2/3 of segment; baseoendopod and exopod of female P5 with transversal rows of spinules on its surface, exopod bearing six marginal setae; male P1 carrying an inner curved spine on basis; exopod of male P5 bearing six elements. The DNA barcode (COI) sequence of the new species was obtained and submitted to GenBank. This is the first report of Parathalestris from the China Seas. Full article
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13 pages, 23672 KiB  
Article
Initial Population Analysis and Mycorrhizal Fungi of the Leafless Epiphytic Orchid, Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum, in Florida
by Adam R. Herdman, Ernesto B. Mújica, Mark W. Danaher, Lawrence W. Zettler, Kurt Schulz and Elizabeth Esselman
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040576 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum Rchb.f. Rolfe, also known as the ribbon orchid, is native to southern Florida, the West Indies, and northern South America. In Florida, it is restricted to the Fakahatchee Strand and is currently state-listed as endangered, but virtually nothing is known about [...] Read more.
Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum Rchb.f. Rolfe, also known as the ribbon orchid, is native to southern Florida, the West Indies, and northern South America. In Florida, it is restricted to the Fakahatchee Strand and is currently state-listed as endangered, but virtually nothing is known about the orchid’s biology, ecology, and current status. The purpose of this study was to document ribbon orchid populations within the northern portion of the Fakahatchee Strand (Florida Panther NWR) and to identify some of the biotic and abiotic factors critical to its survival. During 2016–2022, a total of 118 ribbon orchids were recorded at five sites on 21 host trees comprising two species (Annona glabra, Fraxinus caroliniana). The majority (80%) were rooted on pop ash, and over half (54%) were rooted at the base of trees 100–150 cm above the high water mark. The number of orchids decreased from year to year, with the largest drop (2017–2018) coinciding with damage from Hurricane Irma. At the end of the 2022 survey, only 44 orchids remained. Mycorrhizal fungi isolated from two plants were identified as a Ceratobasidium species. We urge land managers to take immediate action to safeguard this species throughout southern Florida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orchid Conservation and Associated Fungal Diversity)
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13 pages, 6125 KiB  
Article
Exploration Behaviour of European Bison (Bison bonasus) after Its Reintroduction to Żednia Forest District in North-Eastern Poland
by Maria Sobczuk, Daniel Klich, Anna Uciechowska-Grakowicz and Wanda Olech
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040575 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Reintroduction of European bison into the natural environment is one of the most important conservation measures applied for this species. After creating a free herd of European bison, spatial monitoring is crucial. It allows for observation of the population, as well as the [...] Read more.
Reintroduction of European bison into the natural environment is one of the most important conservation measures applied for this species. After creating a free herd of European bison, spatial monitoring is crucial. It allows for observation of the population, as well as the detection of potential threats and needs for intervention. In 2016, a new free herd of European bison was introduced to the Żednia District in Knyszyńska Forest. After a few months spent in the acclimation enclosure, the animals were released. The course of their acclimatisation was observed with GPS collars during the next 7 years. Thanks to telemetry monitoring, we could determine the moment when the herd stabilised its home range within available habitats. Monitoring performed for 7 years after the release of the herd confirmed the previously established home range. The fact that the animals remain close to the release site and that there is no damage to the winter crops confirms that the reintroduction site was well chosen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation of Bison Populations – Achievements and Problems)
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21 pages, 4570 KiB  
Review
The Genus Allochrusa: A Comprehensive Review of Botany, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities
by Rano Mamadalieva, Vahobjon Khujaev, Michal Šoral, Nilufar Z. Mamadalieva and Michael Wink
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040574 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
The genus Allochrusa (Caryophyllaceae) comprises nine species, which are native to Central Asia, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus. They have been used in folk medicine and in the preparation of various sweets and detergents, especially in Asian countries. A diversity of secondary [...] Read more.
The genus Allochrusa (Caryophyllaceae) comprises nine species, which are native to Central Asia, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus. They have been used in folk medicine and in the preparation of various sweets and detergents, especially in Asian countries. A diversity of secondary metabolites has been reported from the genus Allochrusa, including triterpene glycosides, ecdysteroids, flavonoids, volatile compounds, fatty acids, polysaccharides, pectins, hemicelluloses, and other phytochemicals. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on isolated compound fractions and extracts from Allochrusa species showed anti-inflammatory, adjuvant, hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, and other activities. In this review, the chemical compounds and diverse biological activities of the Allochrusa genus are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Plants with Phytochemical Activity)
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22 pages, 5204 KiB  
Article
Updated Taxonomic Key of European Nycteribiidae (Diptera), with a Host-Parasite Network
by Laura Mlynárová, Ľuboš Korytár, Peter Manko, Anna Ondrejková, Marián Prokeš, Radoslav Smoľák and Jozef Oboňa
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040573 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1678
Abstract
Current taxonomical keys are essential for better biodiversity knowledge. Moreover, accurate identification of groups of organisms known to act as disease vectors is vital in today’s world of change and the spread of zoonotic disease threats. This is especially relevant to bats and [...] Read more.
Current taxonomical keys are essential for better biodiversity knowledge. Moreover, accurate identification of groups of organisms known to act as disease vectors is vital in today’s world of change and the spread of zoonotic disease threats. This is especially relevant to bats and their parasites, given the events of recent years. The available keys of European Nycteribiidae (Diptera) are outdated and do not cover all the species currently known from Europe. Therefore, a summary key of 16 European species is provided in this paper. Based on published data from Europe, a total of 173 host–parasite interactions were observed between 16 European bat fly species and 31 host species (bats). The highest number of associations with different host species and the lowest specialization was observed in Penicillidia (P.) dufourii dufourii, followed by Nycteribia (N.) kolenatii, N. (N.) schmidlii and Phthiridium biarticulatum; most of the other species also had low specialization. Most species are oligoxenous, parasitizing on several families, and three species are stenoxenosus. Only one nycteribiid species, Basilia daganiae, was linked with only one host (Pipistrellus kuhlii). Myotis myotis has 12 associations with different bat fly species, followed by Plecotus auritus and Myotis daubentonii with 12 associations. A relatively high number of bat species were associated with only one bat fly species. In addition, we performed a bipartite analysis complemented by network indices and host specificity at the species and whole network levels, yielding new information in terms of ecology and the host–parasite relationships related to these groups of potential vectors (Nycteribiidae) and sources of zoonoses (bats). The parasite–host network composed of 16 nycteribiid species and 31 bat host species was characterized by a low network level specialization, low modularity, and low nestedness. Our findings also suggest a high probability of associated Nycteribiidae in bat taxa with a similar roosting ecology and phylogenetic relationship. Full article
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28 pages, 7006 KiB  
Article
Free-Living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities of Lake Baikal Differ by Season and Nutrient Intake
by Maria Bashenkhaeva, Yelena Yeletskaya, Irina Tomberg, Artyom Marchenkov, Lubov Titova and Yuri Galachyants
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040572 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
In an aquatic ecosystem, the supply of nutrients is essential for the biogeochemical cycle, and it affects the taxonomic composition of the microbial communities. Here, by using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S and 18S rRNA gene fragments, we compared free-living (FL) and [...] Read more.
In an aquatic ecosystem, the supply of nutrients is essential for the biogeochemical cycle, and it affects the taxonomic composition of the microbial communities. Here, by using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S and 18S rRNA gene fragments, we compared free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities and microeukaryotic communities in the areas with different nutrient intakes in freshwater Lake Baikal during the ice-covered and summer periods. Samples were taken at the inflow of the Selenga River, which is the main tributary of the lake, and at several established coastal research stations. The metabolic potential of the bacterial communities was predicted using PICRUSt. Differences were found in both FL and PA communities of the river mouth compared to the photic zone of the lake. The composition of FL communities was significantly different between the sampling sites in the ice-covered period, which is most likely influenced by different hydrochemical conditions. In contrast, the PA communities were more similar during the ice-covered period, but they changed considerably from spring to summer and their diversity increased. The diversity of the microeukaryotic communities also increased in summer, which may have contributed to the increase in bacterial diversity. In co-occurrence networks analysis, the number of interconnected bacterial OTUs in FL exceeded those for PA. The FL communities were dominated by Actinobacteriota, while the major PA OTUs belonged to a mixed cluster, which were mainly assigned to the phyla Bacteroidota and Verrucomicrobiota. As a result, PA communities were enriched in pathways responsible for the metabolism of sulfur, fucose, cellulose and urea. Our results confirm the difference between the FL and PA bacterial communities in Lake Baikal. These results also highlight the complex pattern of interactions between bacteria and microeukaryotes in a natural freshwater ecosystem across spatial and temporal scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Ecology of Freshwater Lake Microbial Communities)
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14 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Detection of a Diverse Endophyte Assemblage within Fungal Communities Associated with the Arundo Leaf Miner, Lasioptera donacis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
by Marie-Claude Bon, John A. Goolsby, Guy Mercadier, Fatiha Guermache, Javid Kashefi, Massimo Cristofaro, Ann T. Vacek and Alan Kirk
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040571 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1628
Abstract
The larvae of Lasioptera donacis Coutin feed on fungal communities lining galleries within the mesophyll of leaf sheaths of Arundo donax in an aggregative manner. It has been stated that L. donacis could have established a fundamental symbiotic relationship with one fungus, although [...] Read more.
The larvae of Lasioptera donacis Coutin feed on fungal communities lining galleries within the mesophyll of leaf sheaths of Arundo donax in an aggregative manner. It has been stated that L. donacis could have established a fundamental symbiotic relationship with one fungus, although the fungal composition of these communities remains unsettled. Using a culture-dependent approach and ITS sequencing, the present work characterizes and compares the fungal communities associated with L. donacis in Eurasia with the endophytes of A. donax in Texas where L. donacis is absent. The 65 cultivable isolates obtained from L. donacis fungal communities were sorted into 15 MOTUs, among which Fusarium and Sarocladium predominated. No particular MOTU was systematically recovered from these communities regardless of the sites. The 19 isolates obtained in Texas were sorted into 11 MOTUs. Sarocladium and Fusarium were commonly found in Texas and Eurasia. Our finding indicate that the communities were composed of a diverse assemblage of non-systemic endophytes, rather than an exclusive fungal symbiont. From ovipositors and ovarioles of L. donacis emerging from plants in France, we opportunistically isolated the endophyte Apiospora arundinis, which lies at the origin of further research pertaining to its role in the feeding and oviposition of L. donacis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Diversity and Culture Collections)
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21 pages, 6145 KiB  
Article
Phylogenomics of One of the World’s Most Intriguing Groups of CAM Plants, the Opuntioids (Opuntioideae: Cactaceae): Adaptation to Tropical Dry Forests Helped Drive Prominent Morphological Features in the Clade
by Lucas C. Majure, Serena Achá, Marc A. Baker, Raul Puente-Martínez, Matias Köhler and Shannon Fehlberg
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040570 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2177
Abstract
Opuntioideae, composed of roughly 370 species, occur in almost every biome in the Americas, from seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) to high-elevation Andean grasslands, American deserts and temperate zones. The interrelationships among the three major clades of Opuntioideae (Cylindropuntieae, Opuntieae and Tephrocacteae) are [...] Read more.
Opuntioideae, composed of roughly 370 species, occur in almost every biome in the Americas, from seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) to high-elevation Andean grasslands, American deserts and temperate zones. The interrelationships among the three major clades of Opuntioideae (Cylindropuntieae, Opuntieae and Tephrocacteae) are not well resolved, and thus, the ancestral habitat, biogeographic history and evolution of morphological characters, such as large photosynthetic leaves and flattened stems, are poorly understood. To test their geographic origin and evolution of key morphological characters, we built the largest phylogenomic dataset for Cactaceae to date using 103 plastid genes of 107 taxa of Opuntioideae. The subfamily Opuntioideae likely evolved in South America in a combination of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF)/desert habitats. Opuntieae most likely evolved in South America in SDTF and, from there, moved into desert regions, Chaco and temperate/subtropical zones, while Tephrocacteae and Cylindropuntieae evolved in South America in desert regions and moved into SDTF, Chaco and temperate/subtropical zones. Analyses of morphological evolution suggest that, although large leaves are plesiomorphic in Opuntioideae, long-lived, photosynthetically active leaves in Cylindropuntieae and Tephrocacteae are homoplasious and do not represent retained plesiomorphy, as is often assumed. Flattened stems are synapomorphic for Opuntieae, possibly representing adaptation to competition for light resources in SDTF, their most likely ancestral area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anatomy, Ecology and Evolution of Cactaceae)
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31 pages, 3380 KiB  
Article
Health Status of Stranded Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Contamination by Immunotoxic Pollutants: A Threat to the Pelagos Sanctuary—Western Mediterranean Sea
by Carla Grattarola, Lorenzo Minoia, Federica Giorda, Guia Consales, Francesca Capanni, Ilaria Ceciarini, Enrica Franchi, Davide Ascheri, Fulvio Garibaldi, Alessandro Dondo, Maria Goria, Laura Serracca, Katia Varello, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Cristina Casalone and Letizia Marsili
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040569 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2589
Abstract
Between 2019 and 2021, 21 bottlenose dolphins were found stranded dead along the Ligurian Pelagos Sanctuary coast (Italy). For 11 animals, out of a total of 14 recovered, the cause of death was classified as natural, anthropic, or not determined based on gross [...] Read more.
Between 2019 and 2021, 21 bottlenose dolphins were found stranded dead along the Ligurian Pelagos Sanctuary coast (Italy). For 11 animals, out of a total of 14 recovered, the cause of death was classified as natural, anthropic, or not determined based on gross and histological pathology and ancillary testing. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in their blubber, and results were discussed according to their toxicological properties. All specimens showed the following trend: PCBs > DDTs >> HCB, and the levels of cancerogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic organochlorine compounds (T-OCs) were >50% of total OCs. Immunosuppressant organochlorine compound (IS-OC) levels in 10 out of 11 animals were above 50% of the total OCs. PCB levels always exceeded the threshold of 17 mg/kg lipid weight for PCB-induced adverse health effects. The results suggest that bottlenose dolphins living in the Pelagos Sanctuary undergo a high level of exposure to pathogens and OCs, betraying the designation of the Cetacean Sanctuary and, consequently, of a region created for their conservation. Immune dysfunction and infectious disease susceptibility appear to be highly connected with high levels of OC xenobiotics. These data are useful to understand health and mortality trends in cetacean populations, as well as for developing policies for cetacean conservation and management in this important protected area of the Mediterranean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring, Threat Assessment, and Conservation Actions of Cetaceans)
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18 pages, 1757 KiB  
Article
Turnover and Natal Dispersal in the Finnish Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) Population
by Aure Kylmänen, Ekaterina Karabanina, Tuomo Ollila, Suvi Ponnikas and Laura Kvist
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040567 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
Estimating turnover in a population provides information on population dynamics, such as dispersal and mortality. Dispersal increases genetic diversity and affects the genetic structure. Golden eagles are monogamous, tend to mate for life, and have strong nest site fidelity, which suggests low turnover [...] Read more.
Estimating turnover in a population provides information on population dynamics, such as dispersal and mortality. Dispersal increases genetic diversity and affects the genetic structure. Golden eagles are monogamous, tend to mate for life, and have strong nest site fidelity, which suggests low turnover rates. Here, we first studied genetic diversity and population structure in the Finnish golden eagle population using 11 microsatellite loci and a fragment of a mitochondrial DNA control region. We found no notable changes in genetic diversity during the 15-year study period and did not discover any population structure. Then, we examined the turnover rate using chick genotypes (N = 935) by estimating relatedness between chicks born in the same territory in different years. The results showed a turnover rate of 23%, which correlated with the breeding success of the previous year. Similarly, in the absence of turnover, the pair changed nest sites within a territory after an unsuccessful breeding. In addition, our dataset also revealed natal dispersal of ten individuals. Natal dispersal distance was 110 km on average (median 98 km); however, the distance seemed to vary depending on geographical location, being greater in Northern Finland than in Southern Finland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Ecology of Raptors)
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23 pages, 424 KiB  
Review
Conservation Status and Effectiveness of the National and International Policies for the Protection and Conservation of Sturgeons in the Danube River and Black Sea Basin
by Daniela Strat and Iuliana Florentina Gheorghe
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040568 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
Rivers and their watersheds have been subject to various changes, including biodiversity, caused by anthropogenic activities. The Danube River and Black Sea basin overlap the geographic range of six species of anadromous fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. Nowadays, they are endangered or [...] Read more.
Rivers and their watersheds have been subject to various changes, including biodiversity, caused by anthropogenic activities. The Danube River and Black Sea basin overlap the geographic range of six species of anadromous fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. Nowadays, they are endangered or at risk of extinction in the wild due to fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats, blocking their migration to spawning grounds, water pollution, and poaching. This paper presents a review of the historical and current distribution and evolution of the sturgeon populations of sturgeon species in the Danube River basin. Conservation status and measures for species protection, conservation, and restoration at the national, regional, and global levels are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Diversity)
14 pages, 2683 KiB  
Article
Effects of Bacillus cereus on Survival, Fecundity, and Host Adaptability of Pine Wood Nematode
by Yuchao Yuan, Zhengmei Yan, Yangxue Chen, Jianren Ye and Jiajin Tan
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040566 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
To clarify the role of bacteria in PWD, three PWNs with different virulence (strongly virulent strain AMA3, normally virulent strain AA3, and weakly virulent strain YW4) were selected as research objects, and three strains of Bacillus cereus (nematode-associated bacteria GD1, Pinus massoniana endophytic [...] Read more.
To clarify the role of bacteria in PWD, three PWNs with different virulence (strongly virulent strain AMA3, normally virulent strain AA3, and weakly virulent strain YW4) were selected as research objects, and three strains of Bacillus cereus (nematode-associated bacteria GD1, Pinus massoniana endophytic bacteria GD2, and P. elliottii endophytic bacteria NJSZ-13) at different concentrations were used to determine their effects on the survival and fecundity of the nematodes. The results showed that strains GD1 and GD2 could significantly improve the survival and fecundity of PWNs at three different concentrations, while NJSZ-13 showed the opposite effects. The inoculation experiments showed that the disease index of P. massoniana under different treatments was as follows: AMA3 < a mixture of AMA3 and GD1 < a mixture of AMA3 and GD2. Similar results were shown in the Larix kaempferi inoculation experiment. Further, using RNA-sequencing analysis, we found that the up-regulated genes in PWN were sHsp 21, Hsp 70, and Hsp 72 after being treated by strains GD1 and GD2. The longevity regulatory pathways, MAPK signaling pathways, glutathione metabolic pathways, and cytochrome P450 metabolic pathways related to these genes are clearly enriched. These results show that the bacteria can improve the host adaptability of PWN, and endophytic bacteria of pine trees may be more effective in improving the host adaptability of nematodes than the associated bacteria of nematodes. Full article
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13 pages, 5466 KiB  
Article
High-Latitude Dinosaur Nesting Strategies during the Latest Cretaceous in North-Eastern Russia
by Romain Amiot, Lina B. Golovneva, Pascal Godefroit, Jean Goedert, Géraldine Garcia, Christophe Lécuyer, François Fourel, Alexei B. Herman and Robert A. Spicer
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040565 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2865
Abstract
Dinosaur eggshell fragments attributed to the oofamilies Spheroolithidae and Prismatoolithidae and recovered from the latest Cretaceous Kakanaut Formation of North-eastern Russia (Chukotka) constitute one of the northernmost records of dinosaur reproductive behaviors. The high palaeolatitude of the locality (~75° N), as well as [...] Read more.
Dinosaur eggshell fragments attributed to the oofamilies Spheroolithidae and Prismatoolithidae and recovered from the latest Cretaceous Kakanaut Formation of North-eastern Russia (Chukotka) constitute one of the northernmost records of dinosaur reproductive behaviors. The high palaeolatitude of the locality (~75° N), as well as the cool near-polar climate, where summer temperatures only averaged 20 °C during the warmest month, dark near-freezing winters and egg incubation that could have lasted several months, raise questions about dinosaur reproductive strategies, particularly in terms of the timing of egg laying. In order to investigate seasonal aspects of Kakanaut dinosaur reproductions, carbonate from eggshell fragments have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, along with the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of apatite phosphate and structural carbonate of associated theropod, hadrosaur and ankylosaur teeth as well as lepisosteid fish scales. Stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of eggshells from the Kakanaut Formation together with those of associated adult dinosaur teeth and fish scales reveal differences in mineralization timing between eggshells and teeth and show that eggs were laid at the very beginning of spring when snowmelt drained from nearby highlands. We propose that Kakanaut dinosaurs laid their eggs at the very beginning of spring in order to accommodate an incubation period that lasted several months. This timing would also benefit from mild temperatures and increasing food availability when the eggs hatch, allowing the hatchlings to grow large enough to survive the next winter or perhaps follow adult animals in their migration southwards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phylogeny and Evolution)
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14 pages, 4362 KiB  
Article
Discovery of the Puparia of a Whitefly Species Found on Malvaceae in the Pliocene Rajdanda Formation, Jharkhand, Eastern India
by Jowita Drohojowska, Gregory A. Evans, Mahasin Ali Khan, Taposhi Hazra and Jacek Szwedo
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040564 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
A new genus and species of fossil whitefly, Praealeurolobus indicus gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on puparia found on leaves of a malvaceous plant from the Pliocene Rajdanda Formation in Eastern India. It is the first record of whitefly [...] Read more.
A new genus and species of fossil whitefly, Praealeurolobus indicus gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on puparia found on leaves of a malvaceous plant from the Pliocene Rajdanda Formation in Eastern India. It is the first record of whitefly puparia on leaves from the Neogene deposits of Asia and the second taxon formally named and described from such adpression fossils. The cephalothorax of some of the puparia has a large, irregularly shaped hole with jagged edges, typical of the emergence holes of parasitoids of modern-day whiteflies and represents the earliest record of parasitism on whiteflies. This finding enriches our knowledge of the fossil record of Aleyrodidae in connection with allied fossils and provides new insight into the ecological interactions of the palaeobiota and taphonomy of fossils preserved in the Pliocene Rajdanda Formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paleoecology of Insects)
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16 pages, 7338 KiB  
Article
Phylogenomic Analysis of Two Species of Parasenecio and Comparative Analysis within Tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae)
by Xiaofeng Liu, Junjia Luo, Mingke Zhang, Qiang Wang, Jie Liu, Die Wu and Zhixi Fu
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040563 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
The genus of Parasenecio (Senecioneae) comprises about 70 species of high medicinal value. In this study, the plastomes of Parasenecio palmatisectus and P. latipes were newly sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology and compared with those of eight other species in Senecioneae. The complete [...] Read more.
The genus of Parasenecio (Senecioneae) comprises about 70 species of high medicinal value. In this study, the plastomes of Parasenecio palmatisectus and P. latipes were newly sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology and compared with those of eight other species in Senecioneae. The complete chloroplast (cp) genomes were 151,185 bp in P. latipes with 37.5% GC and 151,263 bp in P. palmatisectus with 37.5% GC. We predicted 133 genes, including 37 tRNA genes, 86 protein-coding genes, 8 rRNA genes, and 2 pseudogenes (ycf1 and rps19). A comparative genomic analysis showed that the complete cp genome sequences of Parasenecio species and their related species were relatively conserved. A total of 49 to 61 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 34 to 46 interspersed repeat sequences were identified in the 10 Senecioneae species of plastomes. Within the tribe Senecioneae, single-copy regions were more variable than inverted repeats regions, and the intergenic regions were more variable than the coding regions. Two genic regions (ycf1 and ccsA) and four intergenic regions (trnC-GCA-petN, ycf1-trnN-GUU, psaI-ycf4, and rpl32-trnL-UAG) were identified as highly valuable plastid markers. A phylogenetic analysis under maximum likelihood revealed that the two Parasenecio species are sister to the genera of Ligularia and Sinosenecio in the tribe Senecioneae. This study also contributes to the super-barcode, phylogenetic, and evolutionary studies of Parasenecio plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Diversity)
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20 pages, 390 KiB  
Review
The Importance and Impact of Francisella-like Endosymbionts in Hyalomma Ticks in the Era of Climate Change
by Celia Sesmero-García, Marta Dafne Cabanero-Navalon and Victor Garcia-Bustos
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040562 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Ticks are obligatory hematophagous parasites that serve as vectors for a large amount of important human and livestock pathogens around the world, and their distribution and incidence of tick-associated diseases are currently increasing because of environmental biomass being modified by both climate change [...] Read more.
Ticks are obligatory hematophagous parasites that serve as vectors for a large amount of important human and livestock pathogens around the world, and their distribution and incidence of tick-associated diseases are currently increasing because of environmental biomass being modified by both climate change and other human activities. Hyalomma species are of major concern for public health, due to their important role as vectors of several diseases such as the Crimea–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in humans or theileriosis in cattle. Characterizing the Hyalomma-associated microbiota and delving into the complex interactions between ticks and their bacterial endosymbionts for host survival, development, and pathogen transmission are fundamental, as it may provide new insights and spawn new paradigms to control tick-borne diseases. Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) have recently gained importance, not only as a consequence of the public health concerns of the highly transmissible Francisella tularensis, but for the essential role of FLEs in tick homeostasis. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the growing importance of ticks associated with the genus Hyalomma, their associated tick-borne human and animal diseases in the era of climate change, as well as the role of the microbiome and the FLE in their ecology. We compile current evidence from around the world on FLEs in Hyalomma species and examine the impact of new molecular techniques in the study of tick microbiomes (both in research and in clinical practice). Lastly, we also discuss different endosymbiont-directed strategies for the control of tick populations and tick-borne diseases, providing insights into new evidence-based opportunities for the future. Full article
13 pages, 2198 KiB  
Article
Length–Weight Relationships and Diversity Status of Fishes in the Midstream of the Jialing River, a Tributary of the Upper Yangtze River, China
by Qiang Qin, Jianghaoyue Xu, Fubin Zhang, Shan He, Tong Zhou, Shuyin Li and Yu Zeng
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040561 - 16 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The study described the length–weight relationships (LWRs) and diversity status of fishes in the midstream of the Jialing River, which is the largest tributary of the upper Yangtze River, China. A total of 4592 specimens from 53 fish species belonging to three orders [...] Read more.
The study described the length–weight relationships (LWRs) and diversity status of fishes in the midstream of the Jialing River, which is the largest tributary of the upper Yangtze River, China. A total of 4592 specimens from 53 fish species belonging to three orders and eight families were collected from December 2021 to November 2022. The results showed that Culter oxycephaloides, Xenocypris davidi, Hemibarbus labeo, Hemiculter tchangi were dominant fish species in the study region. Twenty-five fish species (IRI ≥ 10) were subjected to LWR analysis, and the regression parameters a and b for fish species varied from 0.006 to 0.333 and 2.129 to 3.391. Eleven fish species were determined to have isometric growth, and 14 fish species were determined to have allometric growth. The diversity analyses suggested that the diversity status of fishes were kept relatively stable during the sampling period and that the fishes suffered moderate disturbance in the midstream of the Jialing River. The present study provided basic biology data for fish conservation and management after the fishing ban in the Jialing River. Full article
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14 pages, 2504 KiB  
Article
Microclimatic Fluctuation throughout the Day Influences Subtropical Fruit-Feeding Butterfly Assemblages between the Canopy and Understory
by Aline Richter, Milton de Souza Mendonça, Jr., Karine Gawlinski and Cristiano Agra Iserhard
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040560 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Vertical stratification is a recognized pattern in tropical forests; however, biotic and abiotic factors driving this pattern are little explored. We investigated the influence of daily climatic variation in the vertical stratification of fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages sampled with bait traps in the understory [...] Read more.
Vertical stratification is a recognized pattern in tropical forests; however, biotic and abiotic factors driving this pattern are little explored. We investigated the influence of daily climatic variation in the vertical stratification of fruit-feeding butterfly assemblages sampled with bait traps in the understory and canopy of a subtropical Atlantic Forest. Overall, 1347 individuals belonging to 38 species of fruit-feeding butterflies were recorded. The canopy and understory are distinct concerning diurnal but not nocturnal microclimatic conditions, leading to different responses in community structure. Richness did not differ between strata, but we observed an effect of stratum in interaction with variation in microclimatic conditions, with the canopy increasing in abundance compared to the understory. Temperature homogenization at night can hinder vertical stratification in richness, while microclimatic variation influences species abundance. The species composition was affected by strata with high turnover in the understory, without an effect of microclimatic variables in beta diversity. In addition to the difference in composition, our study shows that the understory was represented mainly by species from Satyrinae, while the canopy presented species from different clades. This could be an artefact of habitat structure, and the species adapted to the closed forest have a dispersal limitation compared to in the canopy. These findings help us to better understand the mechanisms generating distinct patterns of vertical stratification of fruit-feeding butterflies in the Neotropics and provide new insights into the role of microclimatic conditions in the structure of insect assemblages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Ecology of Butterflies)
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12 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Impact of Native Quercus robur and Non-Native Quercus rubra on Soil Properties during Post-Fire Ecosystem Regeneration
by Bartłomiej Woś, Agnieszka Józefowska, Tomasz Wanic and Marcin Pietrzykowski
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040559 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Following disturbances, ecosystems are more susceptible to invasion by non-native species. Furthermore, it is important to determine the impact of alien tree species on soil regeneration processes during secondary succession. In this study, we analyzed the effect of native and late successional common [...] Read more.
Following disturbances, ecosystems are more susceptible to invasion by non-native species. Furthermore, it is important to determine the impact of alien tree species on soil regeneration processes during secondary succession. In this study, we analyzed the effect of native and late successional common oak (Quercus robur) and non-native red oak (Q. rubra) on soil physicochemical (pH, carbon, and nutrient content) and microbial properties (microbial biomass [Cmic] and respiration [RESP]) nearly 30 years after severe fire disturbance. Post-fire soils under Q. rubra had organic horizons with a greater mass, lower pH values, and depleted nutrient (N, Ca, K, Mg, and P) contents than soils under Q. robur. The impact of Q. robur as a late successional species on soil properties 30 years after a disturbance was similar to that of pioneer species (Scots pine, European larch, common birch, and black alder), as is indicated in previous studies. Most of the studied physicochemical (bulk density, soil organic carbon, N, Ca, K, and P content) and microbial (RESP and Cmic) soil parameters under Q. robur were within the ranges found for post-fire soils under pioneer tree species. Only the pH and Mg and Na contents in organic horizons were higher under Q. robur than under pioneer species. Our results indicate that Q. robur could be a valuable addition to reforestation sites after fire disturbance, especially in more fertile microhabitats. Due to the depletion of soil nutrients, care should be taken when introducing Q. rubra during the reforestation of post-fire sites, especially in larger groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Ecosystem Restoration after Disturbances)
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10 pages, 3196 KiB  
Article
Mitogenome of the Doleschallia bisaltide and Phylogenetic Analysis of Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)
by Ning Liu, Hao Wang, Lijun Fang and Yalin Zhang
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040558 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
The complete mitogenome of Doleschallia bisaltide was sequenced with a size of 16,389 bp. Gene orientation and arrangement in the newly sequenced mitogenome are the same as other mitogenomes in Lepidoptera. Except for trnS1(AGN), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHC) arm, the other 21 [...] Read more.
The complete mitogenome of Doleschallia bisaltide was sequenced with a size of 16,389 bp. Gene orientation and arrangement in the newly sequenced mitogenome are the same as other mitogenomes in Lepidoptera. Except for trnS1(AGN), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHC) arm, the other 21 tRNA genes all contain a typical cloverleaf structure. Ka/Ks ratio analysis of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) from 23 Nymphalinae species indicates that the evolutionary rate of COX1 was slowest, while that of ATP8, ND5, and ND6 was substantially high. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Nymphalinae and Kallimini were nonmonophyletic. Trees constructed only from the nuclear DNA (nDNA) dataset had lower support than mitochondrial or combined datasets. The addition of RNA genes did not improve the phylogenetic signal, and nodal support decreased. These data provide important information for future studies into the phylogeny of Nymphalinae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phylogeny and Evolution)
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21 pages, 3878 KiB  
Article
Distribution and Species Richness of Benthic Polychaeta and Sipuncula in the Northwestern Pacific
by Katharina Kohlenbach, Henry Knauber, Angelika Brandt and Hanieh Saeedi
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040557 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
Polychaeta and Sipuncula are abundant inhabitants of benthic marine habitats and have been increasingly sampled in the Northwest Pacific (NWP). However, polychaete and sipunculan species richness, composition, and distribution patterns still require further investigation, despite previous studies due to increasing deep-sea data flow. [...] Read more.
Polychaeta and Sipuncula are abundant inhabitants of benthic marine habitats and have been increasingly sampled in the Northwest Pacific (NWP). However, polychaete and sipunculan species richness, composition, and distribution patterns still require further investigation, despite previous studies due to increasing deep-sea data flow. Using occurrence records for Polychaeta and Sipuncula from the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), we analyzed sampling effort (the number of distribution records), alpha (the number of species per 700,000 km2 hexagon cells) and gamma (the number of species per 5° latitudinal band) species diversity, and estimated species richness along latitudinal and bathymetric gradients. The species richness estimations were also correlated with multiple environmental and topographic variables, including depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, primary production, phytoplankton, current velocity, light, iron, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, and salinity. The dataset included over 30,000 distribution records belonging to polychaete (31,114 records, 98%) and sipunculan (690 records, 2%) species. Half of the distribution records were reported at a species level. The area around the island of Hainan and South Korea showed the highest alpha species richness (the number of species per 700,000 km2 hexagon cell), yet the estimated species richness (ES50) indicated that there might be many unknown, unsampled, or non-digitized species throughout the whole NWP. Correspondingly, most distribution records (sampling effort) and gamma species richness were found between latitudes 20 and 40° and decreased towards higher latitudes. Sipuncula were reported relatively more frequently from the deep sea than Polychaeta (62.8% vs. 12%). Overall, the number of species and records decreased with increasing depth, with a peak at about 5000 m. The alpha species richness had the strongest positive correlations with temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, and phytoplankton concentration. Here, we provide an overview of the species richness and distribution of Polychaeta in comparison with Sipuncula in the NWP, in both shallow and deep environments. This study demonstrates where further sampling efforts are needed to fill our knowledge gaps on annelids’ distribution and diversity along the NWP. This could improve the analyses of the distribution and diversity of annelids to better understand the current environmental drivers of biodiversity, as well as predicting potential future drivers. The outcome of the environmental correlation provides thus valuable knowledge for predicting the future impacts of global warming on potential distribution shifts of annelids into new environments such as the Arctic Sea, possibly resulting in biological invasions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping Marine Biodiversity Knowledge Gaps Using Open Data)
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14 pages, 1619 KiB  
Article
Saproxylic Beetle Community in the Expansion Site of a Megaproject and in the Surrounding Area in the Western Italian Alps
by Irene Piccini, Davide Bellone, Viviana Di Pietro, Roberta Berretti, Luca Cristiano, Enrico Caprio, Alessandro Bruno Biscaccianti and Simona Bonelli
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040556 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Beetles are one of the most diverse and often highly specialized groups among saproxylic organisms and play a key role in forest dynamics. To develop conservation plans in forests threatened by human activities, such as construction sites, it is crucial to identify key [...] Read more.
Beetles are one of the most diverse and often highly specialized groups among saproxylic organisms and play a key role in forest dynamics. To develop conservation plans in forests threatened by human activities, such as construction sites, it is crucial to identify key parameters characterizing forest structure in turn influencing saproxylic beetle diversity and abundance. Here, we investigate the difference in forest structure parameters and their cascading effect on saproxylic beetle communities between a forest site affected by the construction site expansion of the Turin–Lyon High-Speed Railway Line and a nearby second forest site. Our study showed differences in forest structure parameters between the two sites, in particular in the overall volume and diameter of coarse woody debris and in standing dead tree abundance. Even saproxylic beetle community structure was different between the two sites and this difference was linked to the different abundance and species richness of standing dead trees. Our findings provide information for the development of a local conservation plan for the saproxylic beetle community within forest habitats. Increasing the volume of deadwood and enriching tree diversity can locally sustain abundant and diverse communities and, eventually, support those species that are threatened by the building site expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Terrestrial Invertebrate Communities)
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20 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
Effect of Antiparasitic Management of Cattle on the Diversity and Functional Structure of Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Assemblages in the Colombian Caribbean
by Hernando L. Tovar, César M. A. Correa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Pablo A. López-Bedoya, Blas Navarro, Valentina Tovar and Jorge Ari Noriega
Diversity 2023, 15(4), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/d15040555 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
The transformation of forests into agricultural and livestock systems negatively affects the ecological dynamics and the ecosystem services provided by different groups of insects, including dung beetles, which stand out for their importance in recycling livestock dung. Since the 1980s, farmers in different [...] Read more.
The transformation of forests into agricultural and livestock systems negatively affects the ecological dynamics and the ecosystem services provided by different groups of insects, including dung beetles, which stand out for their importance in recycling livestock dung. Since the 1980s, farmers in different regions of the world have been using Ivermectin to control parasites that affect cattle. The main route of elimination of this molecule and its metabolites is through manure, which affects the richness, abundance, and biomass of dung beetles when they use dung from treated animals. To quantify this effect, we carried out an experimental design in the field in the Colombian Caribbean, where nine cattle farms were evaluated, of which three were taken for each of the different cattle management practices most used in the region: (i) Ivermectin not applied, (ii) two doses of Ivermectin at 1% applied per year and (iii) two doses of Ivermectin at 3.15% applied per year. To assess the richness, abundance, biomass, and functional groups of dung beetles, during the dry and wet seasons, 30 pitfall traps were baited on each farm with fresh cattle manure with the same management doses described above. A total of 25,441 individuals belonging to 19 genera and 30 species were collected. The richness, abundance, and biomass of beetle assemblages decreased along the gradient represented by management without using Ivermectin and management where Ivermectin was used. Paracoprid beetles were the functional group that was most negatively affected in cattle farms with Ivermectin use. In cattle farms where Ivermectin was not used, there was a greater diversity and higher functional structure of dung beetle assemblages than in those where this veterinary medicinal product was used. Using Ivermectin generates short- and long-term effects on the richness, abundance, biomass, and functional groups of dung beetles in livestock systems in the Colombian Caribbean. Therefore, we suggest using integrated treatment management to prevent the recycling fauna from being affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Arthropod Biodiversity: Ecological and Functional Aspects)
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