Next Article in Journal
Al Foil-Supported Carbon Nanosheets as Self-Supporting Electrodes for High Areal Capacitance Supercapacitors
Previous Article in Journal
In Silico Investigation of the Molecular Mechanism of PARP1 Inhibition for the Treatment of BRCA-Deficient Cancers
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Desert Endemic Plants in Algeria: A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Polyphenolic Compounds and Pharmacological Activities

Department of Process Engineering and Petrochemical, Faculty of Technology, University of El Oued, El Oued 39000, Algeria
Renewable Energy Development Unit in Arid Zones (UDERZA), University of El Oued, El Oued 39000, Algeria
Laboratory of Industrial Analysis and Materials Engineering (LAGIM), University May 8, 1945, Guelma 24000, Algeria
Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University May 8, 1945, Guelma 24000, Algeria
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Exact Sciences, University of El Oued, El Oued 39000, Algeria
Biodiversity Laboratory and Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture, University of El Oued, El Oued 39000, Algeria
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of El Oued, El Oued 39000, Algeria
Nuclear Research Centre of Birine, Ain Oussera, Djelfa 17200, Algeria
Department of Plant Production Technology and Commodities Science, University of Life Science in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Scientific Consulting, Chemical Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 1734 Sofia, Bulgaria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2023, 28(4), 1834;
Submission received: 3 January 2023 / Revised: 8 February 2023 / Accepted: 13 February 2023 / Published: 15 February 2023


Due to their robust antioxidant capabilities, potential health benefits, wide variety of biological activities, and strong antioxidant qualities, phenolic compounds are substances that have drawn considerable attention in recent years. The main goal of the review is to draw attention to saharian Algerian medicinal plants and the determination of their bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory importance), and to present their chemical composition as well as in vivo and in vitro studies, clinical studies, and other studies confirming their real impact on human health. Research results have revealed a rich variety of medicinal plants used to treat various disease states in this region. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, biological activity, and clinical studies, a list of 34 species of desert plants, belonging to 20 botanical families, useful both in preventive actions and in the treatment of neoplastic diseases has been established, and polyphenolic compounds have been identified as key to the health potential of endemic diseases and desert plants. It has been shown that people who follow a diet rich in polyphenols are less prone to the risk of many cancers and chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. In view of the increasing antioxidant potential of these plant species, as well as the increasing trade in herbal products from the Sahara region, phytosanitary and pharmaceutical regulations must change in this respect and should be in line with Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), and the sustainable use and development of plant products must be addressed at the same time.

1. Introduction

Recently, a great deal of research has been completed on traditional medicine and its applications. It has been determined that conventional medicine is a body of knowledge, abilities, and procedures based on concepts, beliefs, and experiences that are particular to various cultures and are used to maintain health as well as prevent, identify, treat, and improve a variety of physical and mental illnesses [1,2,3].
On the other hand, the study of medicinal plants is a method for examining the links and interactions between the biological and cultural components of the environment [4]. Nowadays, ethnobotanical studies are seen to be the best method for finding new medicinal plants or concentrating on those that have already been recognized as having bioactive components [5], and only a few studies have been completed in the Hot Arid Regions in terms of assessing chemical contents of medicinal plants, especially in terms of identifying the structure of bioactive elements of traditional medicinal plants [6].
The Sahara Desert encompasses the majority of the northern part of the African continent, stretching from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, and because of the extremely low and irregular precipitation, high temperatures, wide temperature range, and protracted droughts that characterize this eco-region’s climate, many living organisms find it difficult to survive [7]. Furthermore, this eco-region’s geomorphological characteristics are primarily related to the growth of sporadic vegetation [8]. Although there is relatively little rainfall each year, it is enough to support plant life on practically all northern Sahara Desert landscapes. Thus, a landscape-specific vegetation has an extremely unbalanced density and structure that are influenced by the habitat’s environmental factors. In depressions such as Wadi beds, the flora is thicker, but on desert plateaus, pavements, and sand dunes, there is scattered vegetation with limited canopy cover [9].
Under these harsh climatic conditions and a variety of pressures in these desert areas, however, many Saharian plants have been discovered that are still in use today as they have developed thanks to ethnic medicine, including morphine, opium, and anesthetic alkaloids, these plants may act as storage for natural, safe, and effective macromolecules that can be used as antioxidants [10,11,12].
The aim of this review was to discover plants that grow spontaneously in the Saharian and Algerian areas (Hot Arid Regions) that are utilized in traditional medicines by indigenous people. This is the first attempt at a comprehensive study of the therapeutic qualities of such medicinal plants, which are likely to attract pharmacologists and biological control researchers for further critical and scientific confirmation.

2. Methodology

2.1. Collection of Information

Published literature between 2000 and 2021 in the form of books and articles downloaded from databases: PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, and Google Scholar using keywords such as medicine practitioner, traditional medicine, and traditional medicinal plant were used as sources of information.

2.2. Identification of Medicinal Plant

A comprehensive ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Saharian Algerian areas was conducted to gather information on the most significant families of ethnomedicinal plant species (Supplementary Materials: Figure S1) utilized by the inhabitants of the research area. Plant materials were identified with the assistance of humans and healers [13,14].

3. WHO’s View of Traditional Medicine

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), traditional medicine is used by 80% of the people in the developing world. In recent decades, the industrialized world has seen an increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), notably herbal treatments [15]. Herbal medications are made up of herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations, and completed herbal products that have active components that are plant parts or other plant materials [16]. While herbal medicines are used by 90% of the population in Ethiopia for basic healthcare, studies in affluent nations such as Germany and Canada reveal that at least 70% of the population has tried medicine (CAM) at least once [2,15]. It’s possible that ancient civilizations’ extensive knowledge of herbal medicines, established through trial and error over many years, as well as the most significant cures, were carefully passed down from generation to generation [2].
Indeed, contemporary allopathic medicine has its roots in this old medicine, and many significant novel treatments are expected to be created and marketed in the future from African biodiversity, just as they have in the past by following the leads offered by traditional knowledge and experiences [17,18].

4. Polyphenolic Compounds and Bioactivity

The polyphenol profile of alcoholic or aqueous extracts of medicinal plants has recently been the subject of various investigations. For instance, the paper of Binello et al. [19,20] demonstrated microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound procedures for the selective green extraction of polyphenols from lemon balm, where it was found that the compound rosmarinic acid is the main constituent of the phenolic fractions, and it was also determined that ethanol is an excellent solvent for both MAE ultrasonography methods.
Reactive oxygen species are involved in a variety of illnesses; hence, plant extracts containing low molecular mass chemicals have been utilized in phytotherapy since ancient times. Many naturally occurring substances have been shown to have significant action as radical scavengers and lipid oxidation inhibitors [19,20].
Plant antioxidants such as phenolic compounds (see Figure 1) (tannins, flavonoids, anthrocyanins, chalcones, xanthones, liganans, depsides, and depsidones), terpenes (sesquterpens and diterpines), alkaloids, and organic sulfur compounds, in addition to alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are useful as antioxidants [21]. A significant number of studies on the antioxidant activity of various plant extracts and powders have been conducted. The findings of these tests show that many secondary metabolites, particularly phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins, etc. [22].

4.1. Polyphenols

Numerous plants contain polyphenols, which are vital nutrients in the diets of both people and animals. The finest polypharmacy against the onset of chronic illness is found in fruits and vegetables, which include a wide range of antioxidant components, such as polyphenols [23]. Polyphenols play an important role in the scavenging of free radicals. In several herbs, vegetables, and fruits, there was a clear link between antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration [24].
Polyphenols are a sizable class of physiologically useful chemicals that are found in nature; they may be broken down into four categories [25]. Bioflavonoids are the first group. Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are two families of bioflavonoids that are closely related (OPCs). The xanthones are the final group.

4.2. Flavonoids

Flavonoids work as antioxidants by neutralizing oxidizing radicals such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, as well as through chelation [26]. Due to the electron-donating capability of their phenolic groups, flavonoids can also serve as a strong chain-breaking antioxidant. Flavonoids have powerful antioxidant activity; their capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals may be their most significant function, and it underpins many of their activities in the body [27].
Flavonoids have been shown to protect against ischemia tissue damage by serving as free radical scavengers, and by functioning as antioxidants, they have numerous positive benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiviral, and anticancer properties. They’ve also been linked to a reduction in the risk of liver disease, cataracts, and cardiovascular disease [28]. They have direct antioxidant action as well as protective effects on other antioxidants such as vitamins C and E [29]. In addition, their ability to influence membrane-dependent processes such as free radical-induced membrane lipid peroxidation is linked not only to structural features but also to their ability to interact with and permeate lipid bilayers [30].
Polyphenolic compounds are especially susceptible to peroxynitrite-dependent reactions and are powerful inhibitors of nitrous acid-dependent nitration and DNA deamination in vitro, and the role can be exerted in vivo; thus, flavonoids may provide gastro-protective effects when high levels of RNS are produced, in addition to their effects on ROS [31].
Anthocyanins are a kind of flavonoid, which is a family of antioxidant chemicals. Anthocyanins are the pigments that give red, purple, and blue plants their vibrant colors. They may be found in a variety of foods. Anthocyanins may have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties in addition to serving as antioxidants and combating free radicals [32,33].
Anthocyanin-rich compounds have long been utilized in herbal medicine to treat a variety of blood vessel-related diseases, including chronic venous insufficiency, high blood pressure, and diabetic retinopathy. They have also been used to treat a variety of other illnesses, such as colds and urinary tract infections. Anthocyanins may also help protect against major health issues such as heart disease and cancer [34].

4.3. Alkaloids

A diverse set of naturally occurring compounds known as alkaloids perform a wide range of biological functions. Many of these have important medical uses. The most well-known alkaloids, such as morphine, quinine, strychnine, and cocaine, are made from plants, which are also the first source of alkaloids [35]. The identification of novel alkaloids in these less complex microbial species has benefited from the quick advances in molecular biology and genome sequencing, and a wealth of biosynthetic knowledge about these substances has been acquired in a number of recent mechanistic studies. There are certainly still a lot more microbe-derived alkaloids to be discovered [36]. Metabolic engineering initiatives are a significant biosynthetic research application since many alkaloids have medicinal utility. Alkaloid production has been increased by metabolic engineering, and the biosynthetic enzyme engineering of alkaloids has been used to logically alter the structure of alkaloids in simpler hosts. Recently, there has been substantial advancement in the study of alkaloids, biosynthetic pathways, and metabolic engineering [37,38,39,40].

5. Discussion

5.1. Search Results

The main emphasis in the current review was on the most important types of plants used (Table 1). From the search above, more than 150 ethnobotanical articles and phytochemistry and pharmacology papers were retained and have been approved by this review.

5.2. Ethnobotanical Studies

Table 1 shows a list of medicinal plants used in Saharan regions for traditional treatment, as well as their habits, portions utilized, route of administration, nations where they are used, toxicity, and ethnopharmacology. Using websites, the proper names and authorities were listed according to the International Convention of Botanical Nomenclature ((, accessed on 2 January 2023), JSTOR (, accessed on 2 January 2023), and Tropicos (, accessed on 2 January 2023))

5.3. Pharmacological Studies

Several plants have demonstrated promising results in studies. In vitro, in vivo, and in clinical trials, it possesses healing effects. We provide here pharmacological research, summarized in Table S1, that has looked into Saharan medicinal plants that are used to cure a variety of illnesses directly or indirectly. Some of these plants were not found in ethnobotanical studies, and the author is the only one who can confirm their usage in traditional medicine.

5.4. Ethnopharmacology and Toxicological Evidence

Due to the lack of dose recommendations in herbal medicine, additional drug discovery methods such as toxicological, clinical, and lab studies are required to scientifically confirm folkloric use and unravel the possible toxicity of the implicated plants [39]. Through this study, not enough information has been found about the toxicity of these plants. This implies that more work still needs to be completed on medicinal plants before they are recommended to patients to prevent adverse side effects.

5.5. List of Multi-Purpose Plants and Their Uses in the Saharan Regions

5.5.1. Retama retam Webb. (Family: Fabaceae; Vernacular Name: Rtem)

Useful parts: Aerial part (Infusion, powder, compressed herbal).
Investigation: Analgesic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory.
The stem of this plant is utilized in cauterization in traditional medicine. It can also help with rheumatism, scorpion stings, and injuries. Despite their obvious relevance in traditional medicine, the number of studies on chemical components with biological activities (therapeutic virtues) on the Retama retam Webb., particularly in Algeria, is sparse compared with other herbs [40].
Selaimia A et al., (2020) assessed antioxidant activity using the DPPH technique. The findings of the DPPH activities indicated that the extracts of the Retama had the most antioxidant activity, with the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves having the highest antioxidant activity. According to the antimicrobial activity research, the extracts have a varied activity that varies depending on the strain examined. It has been found to be ineffective against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, although it is extremely sensitive to Candida albican [40].
Another investigation found that the extracts of these plants, dried in various ways, exhibit antibacterial activity suppression for both bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Retama retam, on the other hand, was shown to have limited antibacterial action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and high antibacterial activity against other bacteria [41,42]. These findings suggest that the herb might be useful in the treatment of viral infections. Their ability to distinguish between different microbes.

5.5.2. Astragalus cruciatus Link (Family: Fabaceae; Vernacular Name: Akifa)

Astragalus cruciatus Link. belongs to the genus Astragalus L. of the family Fabaceae. Ithas four synonyms “A. aristidis Coss.”, “A. radiatus Ehrenb.”, “A. trabutianus Batt.”, and A. corrugates Bertol [43,44].
Species of the Astragalus genus are used as therapeutic herbs in traditional medicine all throughout the world to treat stomach ulcers, cough, chronic bronchitis, hypertension, gynecological problems, diabetes, and scorpion poisonous stings [45]. Immunostimulant, cardiovascular, and antiviral properties have been found in plants from the same genus [46,47]. Saponin, phenolic, and polysaccharide chemicals are the physiologically active ingredients of Astragalus species, while thenitro-toxins, imidazoline alkaloids, and selenium derivatives are poisonous components [48].
The Astragalus genus is well-known for its abundance of bioactive secondary metabolites. Saponins [49,50,51,52,53,54] and flavonoids [55,56,57] have been isolated and characterized in previous phytochemical studies of several Astragalus species. However, there has never been any constitutional or pharmacological research on Astragalus cruciatus Link.

5.5.3. Genista saharae (Coss. & Dur.) (Family: Fabaceae; Vernacular Name: Marekh)

Investigation: Cold, influenza, respiratory system problems. It contains flavonoids compounds [49].
Genista saharae is a leafless, spontaneous fabaceae that is colloquially called as “Tellegit” in Algeria. For the reason that it is known as a source of chemical components with antioxidant properties, this medicinal plant is used in traditional pharmacopeia.
Sofiane Guettaf’s research focuses on examining the phytochemical content and assessing the antioxidant activity of aerial portions of an aqueous extract of Genista saharae (AEG) under settings similar to its traditional use. The qualitative chemical composition of AEG was assessed via phytochemical screening utilizing precipitation and coloring reactions. Furthermore, spectrophotometric techniques were used to determine the total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and carotene contents. Finally, the antioxidant properties of AEG were determined using three different methods: DPPH, reducing power, and β carotene bleaching tests. Phénolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, steroids, and saponins are among the biomolecules found in AEG, according to the findings. Furthermore, the quantitative examination reveals a significant amount of total phenolics, tannins, and β carotene. In sum, EAG has a strong antioxidant activity against β carotene bleaching, which validates its usage by traditional healers. As a result, Genista saharae is an excellent antioxidant source. The presence of tannins or other phenolic chemicals such as terpenoids, β carotene, and saponins may explain its high antioxidant activity [40].
The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of this genus’ alcoholic extracts have been studied before [51,52,53]. Unfortunately, there is presently no phytochemical or biological information regarding this shrub. There is no information in the literature on the antioxidant effects of its aqueous extract. As a result, all of the Genista saharae findings are consistent with its traditional use.

5.5.4. Astragalus gyzensis Bunge (Family: Fabaceae; Vernacular Name: Foul Alibil)

Investigation: Scorpion stings and snake bites. According to ref. [54], this plant is used to treat snake bites and is a highly hardy plant in the Saharan climate, which is characterized by a variety of stresses. Animals find this plant to be moderately appealing, especially when it is in blossom. Volatiles, which are constantly released into the atmosphere, can account for this. Many studies involving the essential oils of plants have been conducted in recent years for the purpose of discovering natural products and anti-disease actives. Essential oils contain a variety of biological activities, including larvicidal efficacy against mosquitos [55,56]. The essential oil may be utilized to produce natural pesticides and help reduce the negative effects of synthetic goods, including buildup, resistance, and contamination.

5.5.5. Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. & Reut (Family: Euphorbiaceae; Vernacular Name: Lebina)

Investigation: Diarrhea, skin diseases, scorpion stings and snake bites.
This plant, similar to many euphorbias, is extremely poisonous due to the presence of toxic white latex. The nomads, on the other hand, utilize it to protect themselves from snake bites [54]. Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. and Reut., a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, was the plant studied in this study. This species may be found across Algeria’s desert and pre-desert areas [13,57]. It’s called “Lebbina” in the area and grows 30–100 cm tall with upright and branching stems that produce very poisonous white latex. More than 2000 species of Euphorbia have been used in traditional medicine to treat skin problems, including dermatitis, gastrointestinal issues, bacterial or fungal infections, and even some forms of cancer. Algerian Sahara nomads also utilize E. guyoniana to protect themselves against snake bites [58]. It has significant antioxidant capabilities, according to a recent study [59]. The high amount of secondary chemicals in E. guyoniana, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, contributes to its positive benefits.

5.5.6. Ephedra alata DC. (Family: Ephedraceae; Vernacular Name: Alanda)

Parts of use: Leaves and boughs (Maceration, inhalation, herb tea).
Investigation: This plant is used to cure a variety of ailments, including colds, influenza, respiratory issues, hypertension, body aches, whooping cough, and cancer [13,49,60,61].

5.5.7. Heliathemum lipii (L.) Pers. (Family: Cistaceae; Vernacular Name: Samhari)

The genus Helianthemum belongs to the family Cistaceae [62], which are widespread in the Mediterranean region. Across the world, this genus includes 70 species [63]. In Algeria and Pakistan, this genus has a single species Helianthemum lippii (L.) Pers.
The vernacular name of this species is different in different regions and continents, for examplef the name of Al Samhari (in the region of Oued Souf: Southeast of Algeria) [49]; Reguig (in the region of Ouargla: South of Algeria) Tahsowat and Alrjik (South-West of Algeria); Alrkaroq (in Kuwait); Umm Souika (the Arabian Peninsula) [64]; and Sun Flower (Northeast of Jordan) [65].
This plant is highly intriguing from an ecological and economic standpoint [66]. It belongs to the pastoral plants [49,66], plays a key role in the battle against desertification, and contributes to the stability of desertification-prone areas. The species’ powder is used to treat skin rashes [66]. It’s also used in Libya to treat rot and rashes, as well as to prevent illness [67,68]. In Morocco, this plant with the Bedouins can cause lameness in camels in the name of GAF or Kraft (a type of arthritis). But in reality, the toxicity of this plant has not yet been proven [69].

5.5.8. Cyperus conglomeratus (Family: Cyperaceae; Vernacular Name: Saad)

Cyperus rotundus is one of the best known species of the genus as a medicinal plant, featuring in Indian, Chinese, and Japanese traditional medicines for spasms, stomach and intestinal problems, and menstrual irregularities [70]. Several writers have studied C. rotundus extensively; the most notable essential oils isolated from it are α-pinene, β-pinene, α-copaene, cyperene, cyperotundone, α-cyperone, and caryophyllene oxide [71,72,73,74,75,76,77]. For the reason that the southern coast, eastern south, and central parts of Iran have dry and very hot air for eight months of the year, this species can withstand harsh environmental conditions [78]. This species has been recorded to be used as a pectoral, emollient, diuretic, stimulant, analgesic, and anthelmintic therapy in traditional medicine.

5.5.9. Calligonum comosum L’herit (Family: Polygonaceae; Vernacular Name: Larta)

Parts of use: Leaves, roots, boughs (infusion, decoction).
Investigation: This plant can be used against scorpion stingsand snake bites [13,60], vermifuge.
The antibacterial activity of Calligonum comosum L. Her., “Arta,” a member of the family Polygonaceae, was investigated. It is a tropical and subtropical plant that is widely distributed in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. Previous research found that an ethanolic extract of Calligonum comosum aerial parts greatly decreased the rise in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in rats. Furthermore, a pre-treatment with the extract inhibited the acute stomach ulcers caused by phenylbutazone and indomethacin in a dose-dependent manner [71]. Recently, researchers discovered that extracts from several Calligonum comosum plant sections have significant antibacterial activity against four harmful bacteria [72]. Anthraquinones and flanovonids are the most frequent chemical components of Arta, according to prior investigations. In addition, when Calligonum comosum was treated with organic solvents, dehydrodicatechin was extracted, which showed cytotoxic and antioxidant activities [73,74].

5.5.10. Plantago albicans L. (Family: Plantaginaceae; Vernacular Name: Linem)

Is an herbaceous plant that grows wild in subtropical and temperate climates and may be grown readily in Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. The extracts of Plantago species are often used in traditional medicine due to their hepatoprotective [75], analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Furthermore, P. albicans caused structural and functional changes in liver and heart tissue [76]. In fact, this genus contains a high amount of primary and secondary metabolites [77].

5.5.11. Limoniastrum guyonianum Coss & Dur. (Family: Plumbaginaceae; Vernacular Name: Zita)

Investigation: This plant can be used as a treatment for several diseases, including: diabetes, scorpion stings and snake bites, headaches, constipation, hypertension, renal illness, anemia, antiseptics, burns, leprosy, wounds, ulcers, diabetes, anemia, cough, constipation, gas, obesity, tonsillitis, and flu [78].

5.5.12. Tamarix boveana (Family: Tamaricaceae; Vernacular Name: Tarfa)

Investigation: This plant can be used as a treatment for several diseases, including: cough, hemorrhage, diuretic, antiseptic, leprosy, injuries and ulcers, scorpions and insect bites, renal diseases, diarrhea, anemia, gum and mouth inflammation, gastric ulcer, cephalalgia, hypertension, diabetes, joint disease, and pancreatic inflammation [78].

5.5.13. Traganum nudatum Del. (Family: Chenopodiaceae; Vernacular Name: Damran)

Parts of use: Leaves (compressed maceration, powder, and ointment).
Investigation: Rheumatism, skin diseases, diarrhea, rheumatism wound dermatoses [54]. This plant is well renowned for its tasty fruit as well as its wood for burning [60].

5.5.14. Bassia muricata L. Asch. (Family: Chenopodiaceae; Vernacular Name: Ghabitha)

Investigation: Analgesic, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory. It is a rich plant with triterpenoids and saponins [49].
It grows in sandy environments in North Africa, the East Mediterranean region, Sinai, Saudi Arabia, and Iran as an annual plant [79]. It is a significant plant in traditional medicine, where it is used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and nephrotic. It also contains various biological properties, including antioxidants [80]. The extract of B. muricata has been shown to lower white blood cell counts, enhance prothrombin time, reduce blood pressure, and have antibacterial properties [81]. Flavonoid glycosides and other phytochemical components of B. muricata have been isolated and identified [82,83,84].

5.5.15. Atriplex halimus L. (Family: Chenopodiaceae; Vernacular Name: Gatef)

Investigation: this plant can be used as a treatment for several diseases, including: cysts in the uterus, diabetes, stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, hypertension, antiseptic, burns, fever, anemia, otitis, rheumatism, diuretic, vermifuge, vomiting, wounds and ulcers, tonsillitis, gallbladder disease, fortify the gums, infertility, prostate, fall of placenta, nephrolithiasis, hypercholesterolemia [78,85].
Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed both long-term and short-term antidiabetic effects. The aqueous extract was given orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg BW for 30 days to rats divided into four groups: normal rats, diabetic rats (50 mg/kg BW of streptozotocin), and diabetic and normal rats treated with 200 mg/kg BW in the short-term study after administration of a glucose dose of 3 g/kg [86]. When compared with the results before treatment, the aqueous extract resulted in a substantial reduction (54%) in blood glucose in the treated diabetic group at the end of the trial. The plant extract also has an antihyperglycemic effect, lowering diabetic rats’ fasting blood glucose levels by 23 and 41% after 2 and 3 h, respectively [86]. The aqueous extract is high in tannins and flavonoids, which the researchers believe may have an effect on the pancreas via increasing beta cell insulin production.

5.5.16. Zygophyllum album L. (Family: Zygophyllaceae; Vernacular Name: Agga)

Parts of use: Leaves, stems, and fruits (Decoction, powder, ointment).
Investigation: Diabetes, purgatives and laxatives, anti-viruses and fungi, indigestion.
This plant can be used to treat diabetes, indigestion, skin problems, as an analgesic, and as a disinfectant, according to [60]. This herb is utilized in Tunisian traditional medicine as a rheumatism, gout, and asthma treatment [87]. It’s also a diuretic, a local anesthetic, an antihistaminic, and an antidiabetic [88].

5.5.17. Matricaria pubescens (Desf) (Family: Asteraceae; Vernacular Name: Guartoufa)

Parts of use: Leaves (Powder).
Investigation: It is used as a treatment for: scorpion stings and snake bites, colds and respiratory difficulties, bleeding, diuretics, fever, astringents and stimulants, stomach and stomach aches, and constipation. This herb is used to treat scorpion stings and snake bites in the Oued Righ area (El Oued, Algeria) [54].

5.5.18. Launaea resedifolia O. K. (Family: Asteraceae; Vernacular Name: Athid)

The Launaea resedifolia O. K family is one of the biggest angiosperm families, with around 340 genera and 3350 species divided into 11 tribes. They are found all over the world, primarily in temperate parts of the northern hemisphere [89]. The Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean, and Saharao-Sindian areas are the family’s primary distribution hubs.

5.5.19. Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae; Vernacular Name: Anb Aldib)

Parts of use: Leaf, stem, and fruits are the parts of the plant that are used. It is a poisonous plant that is classified as active and hazardous in the pharmacopoeia. It is for external use [54].
Investigation: It is used as a treatment for: diuretic, chronic liver enlargement, diarrhea, and piles; also effective against skin illness and anthrax. Fruits are used to treat a variety of ailments, including heart disease, hiccups, asthma, fever, bronchitis, and diarrhea. Ringworm can be treated using green fruit pastes. Fruit juice is an expectorant and cooling drink that can be used to treat fevers, gonorrhea, giddiness, and inflammations [90].

5.5.20. Erodium glaucophyllum L. Her. (Family: Geraniaceae; Vernacular Name: Tommir)

Parts of use: All its parts are useful.
Investigation: It is used as a treatment for: diarrhea, colds, influenza, and respiratory system disorders are investigated. It’s a medicinal herb that’s good for diarrhea, an astringent, allergies, and oxytocin [54]. Erodium glaucophyllum L. is a common herb in the Nile valley, the western Mediterranean coastal region, and the deserts, and goes by the Arabic names Kahkul, Lesan Hamad, Kabshia, Ragma, Dahma, Murrar, and Tamir.

5.5.21. Cleome arabica L. (Family: Capparidaceae; Vernacular Name: Nettin)

Parts of use: Leaves (Infusion, maceration).
Investigation: Rheumatism, urinary tract.
It is a plant that is high in flavone chemicals, particularly flavonoids, and is diuretic. It can also help with rhumatism, arthritis, and diarrhea [13,49,60].

5.5.22. Neurada procumbens L. (Family: Rosaceae; Vernacular Name: Anfal/Saadan)

Parts of use: Leaves, seeds and fruits.
Investigation: Analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, and stimulant. The Bedouin have always regarded them as edible medical plants [91]. The Bedouins see it as a sort of camel meal that is both safe and edible. The herb has also been used to cure diarrhea and dysentery in traditional Arabic medicine. It’s also been utilized to boost heart and respiratory processes as a stimulant [91]. Its water extract made the mice’s blood pressure rise. Only one study examined the chemical constituents of this plant, which revealed that it contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols and terpenes, volatile oils, and tannins, as well as a hypertensive effect of its ethanol extract, indicating that cardiovascular patients should exercise caution when using this plant [92]. It was also used to cure stroke in people and animals in Pakistan, and its dried star-shaped fruits may be mixed with rose water in the summer as a cooling agent and with dry nuts in the winter to stimulate nerves [92]. In addition to dihydroflavonol glycosides, prior findings in Egypt suggest that this plant contains polysaccharides (gum, mucilage) [92]. On the other hand, mineral monitoring, particularly for toxic elements, is one of the most important aspects of ensuring the quality of medicinal plants because elements such as Fe, Ca, and Zn play an important role in many processes of human metabolism and thus contribute significantly to human health [93,94,95,96], as well as plant growth processes, even in small amounts.

6. General Debate

There are many plants with therapeutic potential, as has become evident over the past few decades. It is also commonly recognised that traditional medicinal plants may be able to provide prospective template molecules for the development of new drugs. Numerous of the plants included here show very potential therapeutic properties, suggesting that more clinical research should be completed on them. However, only a few of them have compelling scientific and clinical support [97,98,99]. Considerable work should be put into finding and describing the bioactive components present in these plants, given the state of scientific understanding [100]. It is a challenging and potentially sophisticated medical process to identify therapeutic components in traditional plant-based remedies [101]. There is still a dearth of literature resulting from the last decade’s investigations addressing procedures to be adopted for quality assurance, authentication, and standardization of crude plant products, despite ongoing thorough and mechanism-oriented evaluations of medicinal plants from the Saharan region’s flora. The formulation of the finished product, extraction techniques, and proper raw material management may all contribute to achieving the desired consistency [16,102]. In fact, it has been acknowledged that one of the main obstacles to the formation of a modern phytomedicine business in the Saharan region is the lack of proper validation of traditional knowledge, as well as technological needs and quality control standards. For buyers, both domestic and foreign, this makes assessing the efficacy and safety of plants and extracts, as well as contrasting batches of commodities from different locations or years, extremely challenging [102,103]. Potential safety issues, such as the contamination of medicinal plant products with heavy metals from traditional medical supplies from the Saharan region, must also be addressed, and regulatory regulations must be properly developed and put into place. By using controlled settings for growth (under GACP) and processing, contamination of medicinal plant material must be kept to a minimum (under Good Manufacturing Practice). For the reason that it is simpler to regulate the supply chain and contamination is limited, cultivated plant material is chosen in the medicinal plant sector [104,105].
On the other hand, correct identification of medicinal plant material is critical to the quality control process; the source of the plant material must be established unambiguously. Following that, during the material’s processing phases, microbiological contamination (fungal, bacterial, and any possible human diseases) must be verified. Chemical, pharmacological, and toxicological assessments, completed in accordance with Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) principles, will validate the bioactive characteristics of the material during processing [106].
These tests are routinely used to predict the safety of newly produced products, where clinical safety and efficacy must be established in lengthy, in-depth investigations during the early stages of a medicinal agent’s development. The unit dosage forms generated after that will be regarded as safe as long as the standard operating procedures are followed. Regardless, quality assurance processes must be implemented to ensure that the factory’s goods are of excellent quality, safety, and efficacy [107].
Alkaloids and flavonoids have well-known antimicrobial and spasmolytic properties [108]. In contrast to alkaloids, catechic and gallic tannins, flavonoids, and saponins are abundant in organic extracts of P. lentiscus leaves, according to research by Barbouchi [109]. The A. herba-alba is abundant in compound phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and anthocyanins, as shown by Khlifi’s study [110]. According to Najafi et al. [111], the ethanolic extract of C. colocynth seeds includes tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins, whereas Benariba et al. [112] found that catechic tannins and flavonoids are plentiful in hydromethanol extracts. These variations in outcomes may be related to variations in the harvesting region, soil composition, climate, harvest season, solvents, and experimental extraction settings.

7. Health Claims Based on Biological and/or Therapeutic Activities

The phenolic acid derivatives and polyphenolic components, primarily flavonoid glycosides, are the primary biological components of most of the studied therapeutic plants and herbs [113]. Flavonoids are so-called secondary plant chemicals that have a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects (see Figure 2) [114]. They possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiageing, anti-carcinogen, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerosis, cardioprotective and improved endothelial function [115]. The majority of these biological effects are thought to be due to their inherent decreasing capacities. They may also provide indirect protection by triggering endogenous defense mechanisms and altering physiological processes [116].
Phytosterols are another category of chemicals found in these plants and herbs. The most notable of their bioactivities is their ability to decrease blood cholesterol by partially inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption [117]. Possible antiatherogenic action is one of the claimed benefits of phytosterols, as well as the immune boosting and anti-inflammatory activities carried out mostly by beta-sitosterol, which are all claimed advantages of phytosterols. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that certain of these plants and herbs’ sterols may have especially protective benefits against the development of various malignancies, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers [118,119]. It’s unclear if mechanisms other than phytosterols’ well-known cholesterol-lowering effect may also play a role in these possible health advantages [120].

7.1. Antioxidant and Detoxicating Activity

A molecule known as an antioxidant is one that can slow down or prevent the oxidation of other molecules. In the chemical process of oxidation, electrons are moved from a substance to an oxidizing agent [121]. Oxidation activities generate free radicals, which trigger a cascade of detrimental cell-damaging events. Antioxidants can work as free radical scavengers, helping to eliminate dangerous free radicals and their byproducts while also inhibiting further oxidation reactions by being oxidized. Several factors, some of which are depicted in Figure 3, influence how effective antioxidants are. Antioxidants such as thiols or polyphenols are therefore commonly utilized as reducing agents [122,123]. According to the radical hypothesis of human physiology, active free radicals are involved in almost every cellular breakdown process that results in cell death. Oxidative stress is thought to play a role in a number of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataracts, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders [124]. In the majority of the plants analyzed, phenolic components have been linked in several studies to a significant degree of antioxidant bioactivity. The relationship between these two characteristics, however, is not entirely evident [125,126].

7.2. Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Inflammation is a physiological response to physical or biological substances causing harm to tissues or cells, comprising a variety of responses aimed at removing the source and repairing the damage. Polyphenols are one of the most common types of phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory characteristics, and many plants with polyphenols as secondary metabolites have been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory capabilities [127].

7.3. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

A burning sensation, a strong and frequent urge to urinate, discomfort in the lower back or abdomen, and difficulty urinating can all be symptoms of prostatitis or prostate inflammation. The most important use of plants or herbs in medicine is for the preventative and curative treatment of prostate disorders. An enlarged prostate is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is caused by non-cancerous growths inside the prostate. Chronic prostatitis is particularly frequent in senior men, possibly due to hormonal changes and aging. It is not surprising that more people are turning to phytotherapy and other alternative treatments as opposed to pharmaceutical therapies because they have fewer side effects than antibiotics.

7.4. Antidiabetic Activity

Aqueous extracts of leaves from numerous plants have been found to help reduce blood glucose levels. Additionally, it exhibited a sizable hypolipidemic effect, bringing down blood triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. The plant extracts outperformed the synthetic drug metformin significantly in terms of antihyperglycemia and antihypertriacyl-glycerolaemia. The results also suggest that the plant extract could be used to treat type 2 diabetes and the associated dyslipidemia. These polyphenolic compounds act as monomers or oligomers in epididymal fat cells, enhancing insulin activity in vitro and demonstrating insulin-like action as well as an antioxidant impact in vitro [128].

7.5. Antiviral Effect

For the reason that viruses have defied prevention or therapy longer than any other form of life, infectious viral illnesses continue to be a serious danger to public health. Traditional folk medicine utilizes medicinal plants to treat a variety of illnesses, including infectious infections. At 1000 g/mL with Rf 104, hydro-alcoholic extracts of several medicinal plants were shown to have virucidal action against the herpes simplex-1 virus (HSV). The capacity of plant extract dilutions to suppress the generated cytopathogenic effect (CPE) is represented as a reduction factor (Rf) of the virus titer in an antiviral bioassay. The study was carried out by the University of Bristol in the UK using a technique called end point titration technique [127].

7.6. Antineoplastic Properties

Only evaluating the effect on cell viability, as some of the reports included in our review (Table S1) did, is not a valuable report because cell cultures are highly susceptible to environmental factors such as temperature and osmotic pressure. Another reason for the low reliability of in vitro antineoplastic studies is that in a living organism, the plant extract is exposed to several other cells besides the target tissue; thus, the extract may be toxic to normal tissues as well, which is one of the main reasons why several agents have been barred from clinical use as anticancer agents. Another issue is that malignant cells generally acquire resistance to anticancer medicines after prolonged exposure, which is one of the main reasons why researchers are continuously looking for novel anticancer treatments. As a result, in vitro antineoplastic activity does not imply anticancer activity, and more data, such as antitumor characteristics in tumor-bearing animals, is needed to determine whether a plant is worthy of further investigation as a source of anticancer drugs [128].

8. Traditional Medicine

Medicinal plants used to cure humans have bestowed a plethora of herbal remedies on the Sahara, which local people acquire, maintain, and pass on to the next generation [129]. The widespread usage of traditional medicine in Hot Arid Regions, which is mostly comprised of medicinal plants, has been connected to cultural and economic factors. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) urges member desert nations to promote and incorporate traditional medicinal practices into their health systems [1]. Plants generally include a variety of phytochemicals, also known as secondary metabolites, that can benefit health singly, additively, or synergistically [130].
Indeed, unlike pharmacological medicines, medicinal plants frequently have multiple compounds acting together catalytically and synergistically to generate a combined impact that is greater than the sum of the individual components’ activities [131]. By speeding up or slowing down the absorption of the primary therapeutic component, the combined activities of these drugs tend to boost its activity. Secondary metabolites derived from plants may improve the stability of active compounds or phytochemicals, reduce the occurrence of unwanted side effects, and have an additive, potentiating, or antagonistic impact [132]. It has been proposed that the enormous diversity of chemical structures found in these plants are specialized secondary metabolites involved in the organism’s relationship with the environment, such as pollinator attractants, signal products, defensive substances against predators and parasites, or pest and disease resistance [133].
Bitter substances that aid in the removal of waste products and pollutants, anti-inflammatory compounds that reduce swelling and pain, phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants and venotonics, antibacterial and antifungal tannins that act as natural antibiotics, and diuretic substances that aid in the removal of waste products and pollutants, as well as alkaloids that improve mood and provide a sense of well-being, are just a few examples [2,17,134]. Although some may believe that isolating phytochemicals and using them as single chemical entities is a better option, which has led to the replacement of plant extracts, a growing body of evidence suggests that using crude and/or standardized extracts rather than isolated single compounds may have some medical benefits [135].

9. Status, Causes and Challenges of Medicinal Plants

Concerns about natural resources, particularly plant species, continue to be a global problem [136]. Unfortunately, the rate of plant biodiversity loss is expected to accelerate [137]. According to available data, the severity of the situation is strongly pronounced in hot areas—the arid desert, as shown by the high number of plant species now under threat (critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable). Multiple causes contribute to the loss of plant diversity, including habitat degradation, alien species competition, death from imported diseases, pollution, and overexploitation for a variety of purposes, including food, shelter, and medicine [136]. Due to the large number of species, the medicinal use of plants is one of the most important uses of natural resources [138].
Because of their substantial contributions to healthcare, financial income, cultural identity, and livelihood security, the value of medicinal plants is basically unlimited [139]. The Desert African medicinal plant business has recently been under increased attention as a result of rising concerns about the sustainability of wild plants, which are traditionally the primary source of traditional medicines [140]. The first stage in selecting species with conservation or resource management priorities is to gather information on the species that are sold, their prices, and the marketed volumes [141]. However, throughout Africa, a lack of scientific data on these critical components of the medicinal trade is prevalent and continues to be a serious issue [140]. Recent quantitative studies analyzing the quantities of medicinal plants traded have been reported for a few African nations, including South Africa [142], Ghana [141], Gabon [143], Tanzania [144], and Sierra Leone [145], as the relevance and utility of such data have grown. The information gained from this research will undoubtedly aid in the assessment of the conservation status of frequently used medicinal species.
Previous research has found that wild populations of medicinal plants are preferentially targeted, posing particular challenges for conservationists [146]. Their viability is determined by the kind of vegetation collected, relative abundance, and growth rates [147]. The vulnerability of medicinal plant species to overharvesting is also impacted by the life forms and plant parts utilized. Woody plants (shrubs and trees) make up the majority of the 51 most significant medicinal plants (65%). Sierra Leone [145], Gabon [143], South Africa [148], and Ghana [149] have all documented significant usage of non-sustainable organ harvesting. The removal of wood, bark, bulbs/corms, roots, or complete plants from any medicinal plant usually results in the death of an individual species [145]. On the other hand, harvesting leaves, fruits, or seeds, on the other hand, is typically seen as less harmful to plant survival.
Intensive pruning, on the other hand, may have an effect on the reproductive success of such plants. These concerns can be divided into four categories from an ecological standpoint: (1) growth, survival, and reproduction rates; (2) population structure and dynamics; (3) community structure and composition, plant-animal and plant-plant interactions; and (4) nutrient and organic matter dynamics, energy exchange [150]. As a result, while creating and assessing ways to minimize the negative impacts of medicinal plant overharvesting, researchers must consider the aforementioned processes (which correspond to distinct ecological levels).

10. The Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Desert Areas a Solution?

The medicinal plant industry is extensive, comprising collectors/local sellers, and consumers, as well as heavily reliant sectors such as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical firms that require enormous volumes of raw material [140]. As a result, the existing conservation techniques have been impacted by the diversity of interested parties and the success of any future approaches/solutions. To alleviate the constant strain on medicinal plant populations in the wild, it is necessary to take rigorous steps to ensure the continuing availability of these precious natural resources [136,151,152]. Increased regulation and the adoption of sustainable wild gathering methods can provide enough protection for some species; however, a more feasible long-term solution may be an increase in desert medicinal plant cultivation [153].
Medicinal plant cultivation usually needs a lot of care and attention. Depending on the grade of medicinal plant components required, the circumstances and time of cultivation are different [154]. In comparison to Europe and Asia, medicinal plant production in Africa’s Saharan areas is still in its infancy. Strong attempts toward commercial medicinal plant production has recently been recorded in the northern (Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia), eastern (Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania), western (Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leone), and southern Africa (South Africa and Madagascar) [153]. Cultivation initiatives for some of the most significant African medicinal plants are a priority among academics and policymakers. Furthermore, growing evidence from countries across the continents, such as South Africa [148] and Sierra Leone [145], strongly suggests that other equally valuable medicinal plants can be grown on a small and large scale with the right approach. Despite rare reports of medicinal plant growth, there is a distinct dearth of recorded information on the scale of such operations. As a result, additional research in this field is necessary.
Table 1. Medicinal plant used in Saharan regions, their habits, parts used, mode of administration, countries where they are used, toxicity, and ethnopharmacology.
Table 1. Medicinal plant used in Saharan regions, their habits, parts used, mode of administration, countries where they are used, toxicity, and ethnopharmacology.
Name of the PlantPart(s) UsedToxicity StudiesMode of AdministrationTraditional UseAdministration and
Application Area
RetamaRetam Web b.Fruits, seedsNot toxicDecoction, InfusionDiabetes, Cold, skin wounds, back painOralMorocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Palestina[41]
Genista saharae Cosson et Dur.Aerial partNot toxicDecoctionInfections of the respiratory systemOral
External use
Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt[52]
Astragalus gombiformis Bomel.Different
Including toxic speciesDecoctionAntidote against bites of snakes and scorpionsExternal useAlgeria, Libya,
Morocco, Tunisia
Eurphorbia guyoniana Bois et Reut.Aerial parts
ToxicDecoctionAgainst venomous bites of scorpions antitussive, analgesicOral
External use
Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco[156]
Ephedra alata DC.Aerial partsNot toxicMacerationCold, influenza, respiratory problems,
External use
Asia, America, Europe, and North Africa[157]
Heliathemum lipii (L.) Pers.Aerial partsIncluding toxic speciesMacerationTreat skin lesions common colds, as
diuretic and for rheumatic
External use
Asia and Africa[158,159]
Cyperus conglomeratusAerial partNot toxicMacerationDiuretic, analgesic and anthelmintic treatmentsOral
External use
Africa, The Arabian Peninsula[160]
Calligonum comosum L’her.Aerial partsNot toxicMaceration
Scorpion stings and snake bitesExternal useSaudi Arabia,
Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Morocco
Plantago albicans L.Seeds, leaves PowderNot toxicInfusionDiabetesOralTunisia, Algeria and Libya[41]
Limoniastrum guyonianum Dur.LeavesNot toxicDecoction, infusionDiabetes, scorpion stings and snake bites, anemiaOral
External use
Tunisia, Algeria and Libya[41]
Tamarix boveanaLeaves Not toxicNo reportedDiabetes, burn, illnesses of the kidney, diarrheaOral
External use
Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean,
Traganum nudatum Del.Aerial partNot toxicDecoction, powderDiabetes, rheumatism, skin diseases, diarrheaExternal useAlgeria[41]
Bassia muricata (L.)aerial partsNot toxicPowderAnalgesic, anti-inflammatoryExternal useIran, Palestine, North Africa.[83]
Atriplex halimus L.LeavesNot toxicDecoctionDiabetes, ovarian cysts, rheumatism, goiterOralMorocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya[164]
Zygophyllum album L.Aerial partNot toxicDecoctionDiabetesOralMorocco, Algeria, Tunisia[165]
Matricaria pubescens (desf) Schultz.Aerial part
Not toxicDecoction, infusionDiabetesOralMorocco, Algeria, Tunisia[41]
Erodium glaucophyllum L’Her.Aerial partNot toxicDecoctionOxytocic and astringentOralWestern Mediterranean coastal region[166,167]
Cleome arabica L.Aerial partToxic Decoction, infusionDiabestes, rheumatismOralDistributed in the north of Africa[168]
Neurada procumbens L.Aerial parNot toxicDecoction, infusionAntioxidant, diabetes, diarrheaOralSinai, Sudan,
Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia

11. Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on extensive recent research in ethnopharmacology, green chemistry, and pharmaceutical chemistry, it demonstrates a renaissance in interest in plant medicines, including desert plants, for the treatment and prevention of many ailments. In hot, dry climates, medicinal plants continue to play an essential role in the rural healthcare system. Until now, the successful treatment of illnesses using plant products has not yet been thoroughly proven using rigorous scientific criteria to compete with the current conventional treatments; thus, a number of significant challenges must be overcome and addressed before their full potential can be realized.
The current review focused on the necessity for accurate recording of medicinal plants utilized by residents of the Saharan region to treat prevalent illnesses. The findings of this study revealed a rich diversity of medicinal plants used to treat various disease conditions as well as ethnomedicinal knowledge; as a result, if the trade of Saharan region herbal products is to increase, local laws must be TRIPS compliant, and issues of sustainable use and development of plant products must be addressed at the same time.
Studies have indicated that all medicinal plants that have never been reported previously yet have been utilized for millennia to cure a variety of severe ailments should be investigated for their unknown potential uses. Communities would surely benefit from further research and promotion of medicine as they work to preserve knowledge and incorporate particular techniques into healthcare services. This may open the door to further study by pharmacologists and phytochemists. Two things should be mentioned. First, local knowledge might be turned into pharmaceuticals or other products for sale, and the locals who are the guardians of this knowledge should be thanked and fairly compensated. Second, overexploitation of medicinal plants will inevitably jeopardize their existence, necessitating conservation efforts.

Supplementary Materials

The following supporting information can be downloaded at:, Figure S1: Medicinal plant used in Saharan regions. Table S1: Main biological activities of Plants in Saharan regions, part of the plant that was analysed, extract type, test system, and effects are summarized. References [169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191,192,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,202] are cited in the Supplementary Materials.

Author Contributions

H.H.; B.B.S.; S.Z.; I.B.A.; I.K., A.R. and N.B.: methodology, conceptualization, software, and writing—review and editing. A.R., and N.B.: supervision, visualization, and validation. A.Z., M.M., B.S. and H.H.: investigation, software, and data curation. B.B.S., M.M., B.S., M.A. and A.R.: data curation and validation. NB., B.S. and M.A.: formal analysis and validation. H.H.; B.B.S. and A.R.: writing—original draft. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data are available in the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. WHO. Fact sheetN°134. Available online: (accessed on 20 September 2022).
  2. Gurib-Fakim, A. Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Mol. Asp. Med. 2006, 27, 1–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Świsłowski, P.; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, A.; Rajfur, M. Bibliometric analysis of European publications between 2001 and 2016 on concentrations of selected elements in mushrooms. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2020, 27, 22235–22250. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  4. Gaoue, O.G.; Moutouama, J.K.; Coe, M.A.; Bond, M.O.; Green, E.; Sero, N.B.; Bezeng, B.S.; Yessoufou, K. Methodological advances for hypothesis-driven ethnobiology. Biol. Rev. 2021, 96, 2281–2303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Ogol, C.K.P.O.; Ogola, P.; Odede, W.; Khayota, B. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal and utilitarian plants of Mfangano Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya. East Afr. J. Sci. 2002, 4, 11–28. [Google Scholar]
  6. Agisho, H.; Osie, M.; Lambore, T. Traditional medicinal plants utilization, management and threats in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Tradit. Med. 2014, 2, 94–108. [Google Scholar]
  7. Azizi, M.; Chenchouni, H.; Belarouci, M.E.H.; Bradai, L.; Bouallala, M.H. Diversity of psammophyte communities on sand dunes and sandy soils of the northern Sahara desert. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 2021, 33, 101656. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Bensizerara, D.; Menasria, T.; Melouka, M.; Cheriet, L.; Chenchouni, H. Antimicrobial Activity of Xerophytic Plant (Cotula cinerea Delile) Extracts Against Some Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Jordan J. Biol. Sci. 2013, 6, 266–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  9. Bradai, L.; Chenchouni, H. Effects of Sand Encroachment on Vegetation Diversity in the Sahara Desert. In Proceedings of the Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Sousse, Tunisia, 2–5 November 2022; pp. 133–138. [Google Scholar]
  10. Kaushal, M. Climatic resilient agriculture for root, tuber, and banana crops using plant growth-promoting microbes. Clim. Change Agric. Ecosyst. 2019, 2019, 307–329. [Google Scholar]
  11. Bouaziz, M.; Dhouib, A.; Loukil, S.; Boukhris, M.; Sayadi, S. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of some wild plants collected from the south of Tunisia. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2009, 8, 7017–7027. [Google Scholar]
  12. Pradesh, A.S.R.I.; Mani, N.S.; Sujatha, B.; Polumahanthi, S. Ethnobotanical investigation of underground Plant Parts of Kotia Hills of Vizianagaram District. J. Med. Plants Stud. 2015, 3, 140–142. [Google Scholar]
  13. Chehma, A. Catalogue des Plantes Spontanées du Sahara Septentrional Algérien; Algérie, D.H., Ed.; Éditions Universitaires Européennes: London, UK, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  14. El Hafed, K.; Kaouthar, L.; Yamina Kh Tedjani, B.; Sam, B.; Mammar, I.; Abdelkamel, S. Atlas Floristique de la Vallée de Oued-Righ Par Écosystème; Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique sur la Région Aride, O.E.B., Station Milieu Biophysique: Touggourt, Algeria, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  15. Mahomoodally, M.; Chintamunnee, V. Herbal medicine commonly used against infectious diseases in the tropical island of Mauritius. J. Herb. Med. 2012, 2, 113–125. [Google Scholar]
  16. Kunle, O.F.; Egharevba, H.O.; Ahmadu, P.O. Standardization of herbal medicines-A review. Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv. 2012, 4, 101–112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Nunkoo, D.H.; Mahomoodally, M.F. Ethnopharmacological survey of native remedies commonly used against infectious diseases in the tropical island of Mauritius. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 143, 548–564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Suroowan, S.; Mahomoodally, F. Complementary and alternative medicine use among Mauritian women. Complement. Ther. Clin. Pract. 2013, 19, 36–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Al-Jaber, N.A.; Awaad, A.S.; Moses, J.E. Review on some antioxidant plants growing in Arab world. J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 2011, 15, 293–307. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  20. Pascu, M.; Pascu, D.-E.; Trăistaru, G.A.; Nechifor, A.C.; Bunaciu, A.A.; Aboul-Enein, H.Y. Different spectrophotometric methods for antioxidant activity assay of four Romanian herbs. J. Iran. Chem. Soc. 2014, 11, 315–321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Marzouk, M.S.; Moharram, F.A.; Mohamed, M.A.; Gamal-Eldeen, A.M.; Aboutabl, E.A. Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves. Z. Für Nat. C 2007, 62, 526–536. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Ning, W.; Peng, X.; Ma, L.; Cui, L.; Lu, X.; Wang, J.; Tian, J.; Li, X.; Wang, W.; Zhang, L. Enhanced secondary metabolites production and antioxidant activity in postharvest Lonicera japonica Thunb. in response to UV radiation. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2012, 13, 231–243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Urquiaga, I.; Leighton, F. Plant polyphenol antioxidants and oxidative stress. Biol. Res. 2000, 33, 55–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Zhang, L.-L.; Lin, Y.-M. Tannins from Canarium album with potent antioxidant activity. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 2008, 9, 407–415. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  25. Soobrattee, M.A.; Neergheen, V.S.; Luximon-Ramma, A.; Aruoma, O.I.; Bahorun, T. Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: Mechanism and actions. Mutat. Res. Fundam. Mol. Mech. Mutagen. 2005, 579, 200–213. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Patel, J.M. A review of potential health benefits of flavonoids. Lethbridge Undergrad. Res. J. 2008, 2, 1–5. [Google Scholar]
  27. Karatoprak, G.Ş.; Ilgün, S.; Koşar, M. Antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of Salvia virgata Jacq. Turk. J. Pharm. Sci 2016, 13, 87–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Lin, Y.; Shi, R.; Wang, X.; Shen, H.-M. Luteolin, a flavonoid with potential for cancer prevention and therapy. Curr. Cancer Drug Targets 2008, 8, 634–646. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Lotito, S.B.; Actis-Goretta, L.; Renart, M.L.; Caligiuri, M.; Rein, D.; Schmitz, H.H.; Steinberg, F.M.; Keen, C.L.; Fraga, C.G. Influence of oligomer chain length on the antioxidant activity of procyanidins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000, 276, 945–951. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. López-Revuelta, A.; Sánchez-Gallego, J.I.; Hernández-Hernández, A.; Sánchez-Yagüe, J.; Llanillo, M. Membrane cholesterol contents influence the protective effects of quercetin and rutin in erythrocytes damaged by oxidative stress. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006, 161, 79–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Rice-Evans, C. Flavonoid antioxidants. Curr. Med. Chem. 2001, 8, 797–807. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Pervaiz, T.; Songtao, J.; Faghihi, F.; Haider, M.S.; Fang, J. Naturally occurring anthocyanin, structure, functions and biosynthetic pathway in fruit plants. J. Plant Biochem. Physiol. 2017, 5, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Bueno, J.M.; Sáez-Plaza, P.; Ramos-Escudero, F.; Jiménez, A.M.; Fett, R.; Asuero, A.G. Analysis and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin pigments. Part II: Chemical structure, color, and intake of anthocyanins. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 2012, 42, 126–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Steinman, M.A.; Gonzales, R.; Linder, J.A.; Landefeld, C.S. Changing use of antibiotics in community-based outpatient practice, 19911999. Ann. Intern. Med. 2003, 138, 525–533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Achilonu, M.C.; Umesiobi, D.O. Bioactive phytochemicals: Bioactivity, sources, preparations, and/or modifications via silver tetrafluoroborate mediation. J. Chem. 2015, 2015, 629085. [Google Scholar]
  36. Zhang, M.M.; Qiao, Y.; Ang, E.L.; Zhao, H. Using natural products for drug discovery: The impact of the genomics era. Expert Opin. Drug Discov. 2017, 12, 475–487. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  37. Diamond, A.; Desgagné-Penix, I. Metabolic engineering for the production of plant isoquinoline alkaloids. Plant Biotechnol. J. 2016, 14, 1319–1328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  38. Glenn, W.S.; Runguphan, W.; O’Connor, S.E. Recent progress in the metabolic engineering of alkaloids in plant systems. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2013, 24, 354–365. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  39. Rai, N.; Agrawal, R.; Khan, A. Chemopreventive potential of Centella asiatica on B6F10 melanoma cell lines in experimental mice. Pharmacologyonline 2011, 1, 748–758. [Google Scholar]
  40. Selaimia, A. Contribution à L’étude Phytochimique de Plantes Médicinales Appartenant à la Famille des Fabaceae. Ph.D. Thesis, Mohamed-Cherif Messaadia University-Souk Ahras, Souk Ahras, Algeria, 2020. [Google Scholar]
  41. Telli, A.; Esnault, M.-A.; Khelil, A.O.E.H. An ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in traditional diabetes treatment in south-eastern Algeria (Ouargla province). J. Arid. Environ. 2016, 127, 82–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Mahboub, N.; Slimani, N.; Hechifa, D.; Merad, K.; Khelil, A. Study of the effect of drying methods on biochemical determination of some spontaneous plants character medicinales in the Northen Algerian Sahara. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2016, 10, 131–140. [Google Scholar]
  43. Quezel, P.; Santa, S.; Schotter, O. Nouvelle flore de l’Algerie et des regions desertiques meridionales. Ed. Cent. Natl. Rech. Sci. 1962, 2, 1170. [Google Scholar]
  44. Tattou, M. Flore vasculaire du Maroc. Inventaire et chorologie. Trav. Inst. Sci. Rabat 2005, 50, 115–201. [Google Scholar]
  45. Al-Snafi, A.E. Traditional uses of Iraqi medicinal plants. IOSR J. Pharm. 2018, 8, 32–96. [Google Scholar]
  46. El-Sebakhy, L. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry: Bioactive Natural Products; Elsevier: Amesterdam, The Netherlands, 2001; Volume 25. [Google Scholar]
  47. Yalçın, F.N.; Piacente, S.; Perrone, A.; Capasso, A.; Duman, H.; Çalış, İ. Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus stereocalyx Bornm. Phytochemistry 2012, 73, 119–126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. Pistelli, L.; Giachi, I.; Lepori, E.; Bertoli, A. Further saponins and flavonoids from Astragalus verrucosus Moris. Pharm. Biol. 2003, 41, 568–572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  49. Halis, Y. Atlas Floristique de La region de Souf: Les Plantes Sahariennes Connues Dans le Grand Erg-Oriental; Oued Souf: El-Walid, Algeria, 2007. [Google Scholar]
  50. Guettaf, S.; Abidli, N.; Kariche, S.; Bellebcir, L.; Bouriche, H. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Genista Saharae. Pharm. Lett. 2016, 8, 50–60. [Google Scholar]
  51. Meriane, D.; Genta-Jouve, G.; Kaabeche, M.; Michel, S.; Boutefnouchet, S. Rapid identification of antioxidant compounds of Genista saharae Coss. & Dur. by combination of DPPH scavenging assay and HPTLC-MS. Molecules 2014, 19, 4369–4379. [Google Scholar]
  52. Bouchouka, E.; Djilani, A.; Bekkouche, A. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of three endemic plants from Algerian Sahara. Acta Sci. Pol. Technol. Aliment. 2012, 11, 61–65. [Google Scholar]
  53. Lograda, T.; Chaker, A.N.; Chalard, P.; Ramdani, M.; Chalchat, J.C.; Silini, H.; Figueredo, G. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Genista numidica Spach. and G. saharae Coss et Dur. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2009, 8, 495–499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  54. Kherraze, M.H.L.K.; Kherfi, Y.; Benzaoui, T.; Berroussi, S.; Bouhanna, M. Atlas Floristique de la Vallée de l’Oued Righ Par Écosystème; Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique sur les Régions Arides: Touggourt, Algeria, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  55. Cheng, S.-S.; Huang, C.-G.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yu, J.-J.; Chen, W.-J.; Chang, S.-T. Chemical compositions and larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils from two eucalyptus species. Bioresour. Technol. 2009, 100, 452–456. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Kostić, M.; Popović, Z.; Brkić, D.; Milanović, S.; Sivčev, I.; Stanković, S. Larvicidal and antifeedant activity of some plant-derived compounds to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Limantriidae). Bioresour. Technol. 2008, 99, 7897–7901. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Benaradj, A.; Boucherit, H.; Mederbal, K.; Benabdeli, K.; Baghdadi, D. Effect the exclosure on plant diversity of the Hammada scoparia steppe in the Naama steppe courses (Algeria). J. Mater Environ. Sci. 2013, 2, 564–571. [Google Scholar]
  58. Dehliz, A.A.F.; Mlik, R.; Hammi, H.; Doumandji-Mitiche, B.; Gheriani, S.; Berrekbia, M.; Guermit, K.; Chergui, S. Ethnobotanical study of some plants used in traditional medicine in the region of Oued Righ (Algerian Sahara). J. Med. Plants Stud. 2016, 4, 204–211. [Google Scholar]
  59. Smara, O. Etude Éthnobotanique et Chimique d’Euphorbia Guyoniana Boiss; etReut. Univ.: Annaba, Algeria, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  60. El Hadj, M.D.O.; Hadj-Mahammed, M.; Zabeirou, H. Place of the spontaneous plants samples in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the area of Ouargla (Septentrional east Sahara). Courr. Du Savoir 2003, 3, 47–51. [Google Scholar]
  61. Hadjadj, K.; Daoudi, B.B.; Guerine, L. Importance thérapeutique de la plante ephedra alata subsp. Alenda dans la médecine traditionnelle pour la population de la région de Guettara (Djelfa, Algérie). Lejeunia Rev. De Botanique. 2020. Available online: (accessed on 20 September 2022).
  62. Kubitzki, K.; Bayer, C. Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Malvales, Capparales, and Non–betalain Caryophyllales. In The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2003; Volume 5. [Google Scholar]
  63. Sambamurty, A. Taxonomy of Angiosperms; IK International Pvt Ltd.: New Delhi, India, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  64. Mandaville, J.P. Flora of Eastern Saudi Arabia; Routledge: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  65. Zaitoun, S.T.; Vorwohl, G. Major pollen plant species in relation to honeybees’ activity in the Jordanian desert area. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 2003, 4, 411–415. [Google Scholar]
  66. Hamza, A.; Gtari, M.; Mohamed, N. Micropropagation of Helianthemum lippii L. var Sessiliforuim (Cistaceae) an important pastoral plant of North African arid areas. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2013, 12, 6468–6473. [Google Scholar]
  67. Alsabri, S.G.; Zetrini, A.; Fitouri, S.; Hermann, A. Screening of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities for two Libyan medicinal plants: Helianthemum lippii and Launaea residifolia. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2012, 4, 4201–4205. [Google Scholar]
  68. Alsabri, S.G.; Rmeli, N.B.; Zetrini, A.A.; Mohamed, S.B.; Meshri, M.I.; Aburas, K.M.; Bensaber, S.M.; Mrema, I.A.; Mosbah, A.A.; Allahresh, K.A. Phytochemical, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of Helianthemum lippii. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2013, 2, 86–96. [Google Scholar]
  69. Chouikh, A.A.E.; Adaika, A.; Chefrour, A. Screening chimique d’une plante pastorale Saharienne Heliathemum lippii (famille Cistaceae) dans différents phases de la croissance (végétative; floraison; fructification) à Sahara d’Oued Souf (Est-sud Algérie). ScienceLib 2014, 6, 1–12. [Google Scholar]
  70. Ali, S.S.; Kasoju, N.; Luthra, A.; Singh, A.; Sharanabasava, H.; Sahu, A.; Bora, U. Indian medicinal herbs as source of antioxidants. Food Res. Int. 2008, 41, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Liu, X.; Zakaria, M.; Islam, M.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ismail, A.; Chen, H.; Chan, K.; Al-Attas, A. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity of Calligonum comosum in rats. Fitoterapia 2001, 72, 487–491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Alkhalifah, D. In-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Calligonum comosum plant against four human pathogens in Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci. 2013, 3, 170–175. [Google Scholar]
  73. Badria, F.A.; Ameen, M.; Akl, M.R. Evaluation of cytotoxic compounds from Calligonum comosum L. growing in Egypt. Z. Für Nat. C 2007, 62, 656–660. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. Kamil, M.; Jayaraj, A.; Ahmad, F.; Gunasekhar, C.; Samuel, S.; Chan, K.; Habibullah, M.; Attas, A. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical standardization of Calligonum comosum. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2000, 52, 262. [Google Scholar]
  75. Türel, I.; Özbek, H.; Erten, R.; Öner, A.C.; Cengiz, N.; Yilmaz, O. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2009, 41, 120. [Google Scholar] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  76. Samout, N.; Ettaya, A.; Bouzenna, H.; Ncib, S.; Elfeki, A.; Hfaiedh, N. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2016, 84, 1768–1775. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. Janković, T.; Zdunić, G.; Beara, I.; Balog, K.; Pljevljakušić, D.; Stešević, D.; Šavikin, K. Comparative study of some polyphenols in Plantago species. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 2012, 42, 69–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Hadjadj, S.; Bayoussef, Z.; El Hadj-Khelil, A.O.; Beggat, H.; Bouhafs, Z.; Boukaka, Y.; Khaldi, I.A.; Mimouni, S.; Sayah, F.; Tey, M. Ethnobotanical study and phytochemical screening of six medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the Northeastern Sahara of Algeria (area of Ouargla). J. Med. Plants Res. 2015, 9, 1049–1059. [Google Scholar]
  79. Boulos, L. Medicinal plants of North Africa. Med. Plants N. Afr. 1983, 286. [Google Scholar]
  80. Chemsa, A.E.; Derdouri, S.; Labbi, Z.; Acila, S.; Amara, D.G.; Chouikh, A.; Kherraz, K.; Allali, A.; Zellagui, A. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of different solvent extracts of Bassia muricata (L.) Asch. and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2016, 8, 1317–1321. [Google Scholar]
  81. Syed Najmuddin, S.U.F.; Romli, M.F.; Hamid, M.; Alitheen, N.B.; Nik Abd Rahman, N.M.A. Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016, 16, 311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  82. El Hossary, G.; Selim, M.; Sayed, A.E.; Khaleel, A. Study of the flavonoid content of Bassia muricata and Bauhinia racemosa. Bull. Fac. Pharm. Cairo Univ. 2000, 38, 93–97. [Google Scholar]
  83. Kamel, M.S.; Mohamed, K.M.; Hassanean, H.A.; Ohtani, K.; Kasai, R.; Yamasaki, K. Acylated flavonoid glycosides from Bassia muricata. Phytochemistry 2001, 57, 1259–1262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  84. Shaker, K.H.; Al Jubiri, S.M.; El-Hady, F.; Al-Sehemi, A.G. New compounds from Bassia muricata and Fagonia indica. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res 2013, 23, 231–236. [Google Scholar]
  85. Adouane, S. Etude Ethnobotanique des Plantes Médicinales dans la Région Méridionale des Aurès; Université Mohamed Khider-Biskra: Biskra, Algeria, 2016. [Google Scholar]
  86. Chikhi, I.; Allali, H.; Dib, M.E.A.; Medjdoub, H.; Tabti, B. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Atriplex halimus L.(Chenopodiaceae) in streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis. 2014, 4, 181–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Mnafgui, K.; Hamden, K.; Ben Salah, H.; Kchaou, M.; Nasri, M.; Slama, S.; Derbali, F.; Allouche, N.; Elfeki, A. Inhibitory activities of Zygophyllum album: A natural weight-lowering plant on key enzymes in high-fat diet-fed rats. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2012, 2012, 620384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  88. Lavie, C.J.; Milani, R.V.; Ventura, H.O. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: Risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2009, 53, 1925–1932. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  89. Rauf, A.; Khan, D.; Zaki, M.J. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from some Coastal Plants of Karachi (Pakistan). Int. J. Biol. Biotechnol. 2016, 13, 317–327. [Google Scholar]
  90. Salahuddin, M.; Rakib, H.H.; Biplob, A.; Islam, M.S.; Foyasal, M.K.; Tanvir, R.Z.; Jahan, N. Medicinal plants used by a Traditional Ayurvedic Practitioner at Asadnagar Village in Narsingdi District, Bangladesh. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2015, 4, 269–275. [Google Scholar]
  91. Khurshid, U.; Ahmad, S.; Saleem, H.; Nawaz, H.A.; Zengin, G.; Locatelli, M.; Mahomoodally, M.F.; Abidin, S.A.Z.; Tousif, M.I.; Ahemad, N. Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological investigations of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae): A multidirectional approach for industrial products. Ind. Crops Prod. 2019, 142, 111861. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Youssef, F.S.; Ashour, M.L.; El-Beshbishy, H.A.; Singab, A.N.B.; Wink, M. Metabolic profiling of Buddleia indica leaves using LC/MS and evidence of their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity using different in vitro and in vivo Experimental models. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  93. Messaoudi, M.; Benarfa, A.; Ouakouak, H.; Begaa, S. Determination of some chemical elements of common spices used by algerians and possible health risk assessment. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2022, 200, 2498–2509. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Hamlat, N.; Benarfa, A.; Beladel, B.; Begaa, S.; Messaoudi, M.; Hassani, A. Assessment of the contents of essential and potentially toxic elements in Pistacia terebinthus L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. by INAA technique. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 2019, 322, 1127–1131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Begaa, S.; Messaoudi, M. Toxicological aspect of some selected medicinal plant samples collected from Djelfa, Algeria Region. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2019, 187, 301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Messaoudi, M.; Begaa, S. Application of INAA technique for analysis of essential trace and toxic elements in medicinal seeds of Carum carvi L. & Foeniculum vul-gare Mill. used in Algeria. J. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants 2018, 9, 39–45. [Google Scholar]
  97. Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, M.F. African flora as potential sources of medicinal plants: Towards the chemotherapy of major parasitic and other infectious diseases: A review. Jordan J. Biol. Sci. 2013, 147, 77–84. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  98. Benchikha, N.; Chelalba, I.; Debbeche, H.; Messaoudi, M.; Begaa, S.; Larkem, I.; Amara, D.G.; Rebiai, A.; Simal-Gandara, J.; Sawicka, B.; et al. Lobularia libyca: Phytochemical Profiling, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity Using In Vitro and In Silico Studies. Molecules 2022, 27, 3744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Chelalba, I.; Rebiai, A.; Debbeche, H.; Begaa, S.; Messaoudi, M.; Benchikha, N. Total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant and cytotoxicity assessment of Algerian Launaea glomerata (Cass.) Hook. f. extracts. Eur. J. Biol. Res. 2021, 11, 168–176. [Google Scholar]
  100. Efferth, T.; Kaina, B. Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine. Curr. Drug Metab. 2011, 12, 989–996. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Pan, S.-Y.; Zhou, S.-F.; Gao, S.-H.; Yu, Z.-L.; Zhang, S.-F.; Tang, M.-K.; Sun, J.-N.; Ma, D.-L.; Han, Y.-F.; Fong, W.-F. New perspectives on how to discover drugs from herbal medicines: CAM’s outstanding contribution to modern therapeutics. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2013, 2013, 627375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  102. Wangchuk, P. Quality assurance of the university medical education, hospital services and traditional pharmaceutical products of the Bhutanese So-wa-rig-pa health care system. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016, 16, 283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  103. Gupta, P.D.; Daswani, P.G.; Birdi, T.J. Approaches in fostering quality parameters for medicinal botanicals in the Indian context. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2014, 46, 363. [Google Scholar]
  104. Gautam, R.; Saklani, A.; Jachak, S.M. Indian medicinal plants as a source of antimycobacterial agents. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007, 110, 200–234. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. Ndhlala, A.; Stafford, G.; Finnie, J.; Van Staden, J. Commercial herbal preparations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: The urban face of traditional medicine. South Afr. J. Bot. 2011, 77, 830–843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  106. Gálvez, P.; Clares, B.; Hmadcha, A.; Ruiz, A.; Soria, B. Development of a cell-based medicinal product: Regulatory structures in the European Union. Br. Med. Bull. 2013, 105, 85–105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  107. Kasilo, O.M.; Trapsida, J.-M. Regulation of traditional medicine in the WHO African region. Afr. Health Monit. 2010, 3, 25–31. [Google Scholar]
  108. Panche, A.N.; Diwan, A.D.; Chandra, S.R. Flavonoids: An overview. J. Nutr. Sci. 2016, 5, e47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  109. Barbouchi, M.; Elamrani, K.; El Idrissi, M. A comparative study on phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts from various parts of Pistacia lentiscus L. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 2020, 32, 302–306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Khlifi, D.; Sghaier, R.M.; Amouri, S.; Laouini, D.; Hamdi, M.; Bouajila, J. Composition and anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia herba-alba, Ruta chalpensis L. and Peganum harmala L. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013, 55, 202–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Shahla, N.; Nima, S.; Batool, S.N.; Maryam, A.B.; Ehsan, S. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Med. Plants Res. 2010, 4, 2321–2325. [Google Scholar]
  112. Benariba, N.; Djaziri, R.; Bellakhdar, W.; Belkacem, N.; Kadiata, M.; Malaisse, W.J.; Sener, A. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2013, 3, 35–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  113. Cai, Y.; Luo, Q.; Sun, M.; Corke, H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci. 2004, 74, 2157–2184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Górniak, I.; Bartoszewski, R.; Króliczewski, J. Comprehensive review of antimicrobial activities of plant flavonoids. Phytochem. Rev. 2019, 18, 241–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  115. Sharif, H.; Akash, M.S.H.; Rehman, K.; Irshad, K.; Imran, I. Pathophysiology of atherosclerosis: Association of risk factors and treatment strategies using plant-based bioactive compounds. J. Food Biochem. 2020, 44, e13449. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  116. Han, X.; Shen, T.; Lou, H. Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007, 8, 950–988. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  117. Kmiecik, D.; Korczak, J.; Rudzińska, M.; Gramza-Michałowska, A.; Hęś, M.; Kobus-Cisowska, J. Stabilisation of phytosterols by natural and synthetic antioxidants in high temperature conditions. Food Chem. 2015, 173, 966–971. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  118. Kopylov, A.T.; Malsagova, K.A.; Stepanov, A.A.; Kaysheva, A.L. Diversity of Plant Sterols Metabolism: The Impact on Human Health, Sport, and Accumulation of Contaminating Sterols. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  119. Zahnit, W.; Smara, O.; Bechki, L.; Bensouici, C.; Messaoudi, M.; Benchikha, N.; Larkem, I.; Awuchi, C.G.; Sawicka, B.; Simal-Gandara, J. Phytochemical Profiling, Mineral Elements, and Biological Activities of Artemisia campestris L. Grown in Algeria. Horticulturae 2022, 8, 914. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. Trautwein, E.A.; Demonty, I. Phytosterols: Natural compounds with established and emerging health benefits. Oléagineux Corps Gras Lipides 2007, 14, 259–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  121. Vishnoi, H.; Bodla, R.B.; Kant, R. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its antioxidant property: A review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2018, 9, 1723–1736. [Google Scholar]
  122. Aversa, R.; Petrescu, R.V.; Apicella, A.; Petrescu, F.I. One can slow down the aging through antioxidants. Am. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2016, 9, 1112–1126. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Hamid, A.; Aiyelaagbe, O.; Usman, L.; Ameen, O.; Lawal, A. Antioxidants: Its medicinal and pharmacological applications. Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem. 2010, 4, 142–151. [Google Scholar]
  124. Pham-Huy, L.A.; He, H.; Pham-Huy, C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biomed. Sci. IJBS 2008, 4, 89. [Google Scholar]
  125. Campos, M.G.; Webby, R.F.; Markham, K.R.; Mitchell, K.A.; Da Cunha, A.P. Age-induced diminution of free radical scavenging capacity in bee pollens and the contribution of constituent flavonoids. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 742–745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  126. Leja, M.; Mareczek, A.; Wyżgolik, G.; Klepacz-Baniak, J.; Czekońska, K. Antioxidative properties of bee pollen in selected plant species. Food Chem. 2007, 100, 237–240. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  127. Rasouli, H.; Farzaei, M.H.; Khodarahmi, R. Polyphenols and their benefits: A review. Int. J. Food Prop. 2017, 20, 1700–1741. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  128. Abdelgawad, A. Tamarix nilotica (Ehrenb) bunge: A review of phytochemistry and pharmacology. J. Microb. Biochem. Technol. 2017, 9, 544–553. [Google Scholar]
  129. Adu-Gyamfi, S. From Vital Force To The Scientific or an Admixture: A Historical Discourse On Individuals Value for Indigenous Medical Practices In Ghana. J. Basic Appl. Res. Int. 2018, 2018, 1–23. [Google Scholar]
  130. Kapinova, A.; Stefanicka, P.; Kubatka, P.; Zubor, P.; Uramova, S.; Kello, M.; Mojzis, J.; Blahutova, D.; Qaradakhi, T.; Zulli, A. Are plant-based functional foods better choice against cancer than single phytochemicals? A critical review of current breast cancer research. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017, 96, 1465–1477. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Škrovánková, S.; Mišurcová, L.; Machů, L. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 2012, 67, 75–139. [Google Scholar]
  132. Wang, G.; Ahmeda, A.; Malek, Z.; Mansooridara, S.; Zangeneh, A.; Zangeneh, M.M. Chemical characterization and therapeutic properties of Achillea biebersteinii leaf aqueous extract synthesized copper nanoparticles against methamphetamine-induced cell death in PC12: A study in the nanotechnology and neurology fields. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 2020, 34, e5488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Hussain, M.; Debnath, B.; Qasim, M.; Bamisile, B.S.; Islam, W.; Hameed, M.S.; Wang, L.; Qiu, D. Role of saponins in plant defense against specialist herbivores. Molecules 2019, 24, 2067. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  134. Chintamunnee, V.; Mahomoodally, M.F. Herbal medicine commonly used against non-communicable diseases in the tropical island of Mauritius. J. Herb. Med. 2012, 2, 113–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  135. Sofowora, A.; Ogunbodede, E.; Onayade, A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2013, 10, 210–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  136. Affolter, J.M.; Pengelly, A. Conserving medicinal plant biodiversity. In Veterinary Herbal Medicine; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2007; pp. 257–263. [Google Scholar]
  137. Ahrends, A.; Rahbek, C.; Bulling, M.T.; Burgess, N.D.; Platts, P.J.; Lovett, J.C.; Kindemba, V.W.; Owen, N.; Sallu, A.N.; Marshall, A.R. Conservation and the botanist effect. Biol. Conserv. 2011, 144, 131–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Iwu, M.M. Pharmacognostical profile of selected medicinal plants. In Handbook of African Medicinal Plants; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2014; pp. 125–380. [Google Scholar]
  139. Hamilton, A.C. Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods. Biodivers. Conserv. 2004, 13, 1477–1517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. Dzoyem, J.P.; Tshikalange, E.; Kuete, V. Medicinal plants market and industry in Africa. In Medicinal Plant Research in Africa; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013; pp. 859–890. [Google Scholar]
  141. Van Andel, T.; Myren, B.; van Onselen, S. Ghana’s herbal market. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 140, 368–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Williams, V.L.; Witkowski, E.T.; Balkwill, K. Volume and financial value of species traded in the medicinal plant markets of Gauteng, South Africa. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 2007, 14, 584–603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Towns, A.M.; Quiroz, D.; Guinee, L.; de Boer, H.; van Andel, T. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon’s medicinal plant markets. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, 155, 1184–1193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. McMillen, H.L. Conserving the Roots of Trade: Local Ecological Knowledge of Ethnomedicines from Tanga, Tanzania Markets; University of Hawaii at Manoa: Hawaii, HI, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  145. Jusu, A.; Sanchez, A.C. Economic Importance of the Medicinal Plant Trade in Sierra Leone 1. Econ. Bot. 2013, 67, 299–312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Moyo, M.; Aremu, A.O.; Van Staden, J. Medicinal plants: An invaluable, dwindling resource in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2015, 174, 595–606. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  147. Lubbe, A.; Verpoorte, R. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Ind. Crops Prod. 2011, 34, 785–801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  148. Keirungi, J.; Fabricius, C. Selecting medicinal plants for cultivation at Nqabara on the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, South Africa: Research in action. S. Afr. J. Sci. 2005, 101, 497–501. [Google Scholar]
  149. Williams, V.; Balkwill, K.; Witkowski, E.F. Unraveling the commercial market for medicinal plants and plant parts on the Witwatersrand. S. Afr. 2000, 54, 310–327. [Google Scholar]
  150. Ticktin, T. The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. J. Appl. Ecol. 2004, 41, 11–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  151. Gandhi, S.G.; Mahajan, V.; Bedi, Y.S. Changing trends in biotechnology of secondary metabolism in medicinal and aromatic plants. Planta 2015, 241, 303–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  152. Van Andel, T.; Croft, S.; Van Loon, E.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.; Raes, N. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models. Biol. Conserv. 2015, 181, 173–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  153. Moshi, M.J.; Mhame, P.P. Legislation on medicinal plants in Africa. Med. Plant Res. Afr. 2013, 2013, 843–858. [Google Scholar]
  154. Salud, O.M.D.L.; World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices [GACP] for Medicinal Plants; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2003. [Google Scholar]
  155. Montoro, P.; Teyeb, H.; Masullo, M.; Mari, A.; Douki, W.; Piacente, S. LC–ESI-MS quali-quantitative determination of phenolic constituents in different parts of wild and cultivated Astragalus gombiformis. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2013, 72, 89–98. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  156. Kúsz, N.; Orvos, P.; Csorba, A.; Tálosi, L.; Chaieb, M.; Hohmann, J.; Rédei, D. Jatrophane diterpenes from Euphorbia guyoniana are new potent inhibitors of atrial GIRK channels. Tetrahedron 2016, 72, 5724–5728. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  157. Elhadef, K.; Smaoui, S.; Hlima, H.B.; Ennouri, K.; Fourati, M.; Mtibaa, A.C.; Sellem, I.; Mellouli, L. Chemometric multivariate analyses of phenolics and biological activities for characterization and discrimination of Tunisian Ephedra alata. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2020, 246, 1495–1513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  158. Atef, C.; Anouar, F.; El-Hadda, A.; Azzedine, C. Phytochemicals study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Helianthemum lippii (L.) pers. in different stages of growth (somatic, flowering and fruiting). World J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2015, 4, 338–349. [Google Scholar]
  159. Djemam, N.; Lassed, S.; Gül, F.; Altun, M.; Monteiro, M.; Menezes-Pinto, D.; Benayache, S.; Benayache, F.; Zama, D.; Demirtas, I. Characterization of ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Helianthemum lippii and their effect on the smooth muscle of the rat distal colon. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2020, 252, 112613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  160. Abdel-Razik, A.F.; Nassar, M.I.; El-Khrisy, E.-D.A.; Dawidar, A.-A.M.; Mabry, T.J. New prenylflavans from Cyperus conglomeratus. Fitoterapia 2005, 76, 762–764. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  161. Al-Abrahim, J.S.; Mohammed, A.E.; Elobeid, M.M. Received: 23 Research article Assessment of In-Vitro Anti-Fungal Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Calligonum Comosum against Two Fungal Postharvest Pathogens of Fruits and Vegetables in Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Appl. Biol. Pharm. 2013, 2013, 167637. [Google Scholar]
  162. Bannour, M.; Fellah, B.; Rocchetti, G.; Ashi-Smiti, S.; Lachenmeier, D.W.; Lucini, L.; Khadhri, A. Phenolic profiling and antioxidant capacity of Calligonum azel Maire, a Tunisian desert plant. Food Res. Int. 2017, 101, 148–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  163. Miara, M.; Hammou, M.A.; Aoul, S.H. Phytothérapie et taxonomie des plantes médicinales spontanées dans la région de Tiaret (Algérie). Phytothérapie 2013, 11, 206–218. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  164. Azzi, A. Contribution a l’etude de plantes medicinales utilisees dans le traitement traditionnel du diabete sucre dans l’Ouest Algerien: Enquete ethnopharmacologique. In Analyse Pharmaco-Toxicologique de Figuier (Ficus Carcia) et de Coloquinte (Citrillus Colocynthis) Chez Le Rat Wistar; Universite Abou Bekr Belkaid: Telemcen, Algeria, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  165. Chehma, A.; Djebar, M.R. Les espèces médicinales spontanées du Sahara septentrional algérien: Distribution spatio-temporelle et étude ethnobotanique. Synthèse Rev. Sci. Technol. 2008, 17, 36–45. [Google Scholar]
  166. Bakari, S.; Hajlaoui, H.; Daoud, A.; Mighri, H.; Ross-Garcia, J.M.; Gharsallah, N.; Kadri, A. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials and LC-MS analysis of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and flowers of Erodium glaucophyllum collected from Tunisian Sahara. Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 38, 310–317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  167. Gohar, A.A.; Lahloub, M.F.; Niwa, M. Antibacterial polyphenol from Erodium glaucophyllum. Z. Für Nat. C 2003, 58, 670–674. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  168. Ladhari, A.; Tufano, I.; DellaGreca, M. Influence of new effective allelochemicals on the distribution of Cleome arabica L. community in nature. Nat. Prod. Res. 2020, 34, 773–781. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  169. Djeddi, S.; Karioti, A.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulos, K.; Chatter, R.; Skaltsa, H. Analgesic and antioxidant activities of Algerian Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb & Berthel extracts. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2013, 7, 169. [Google Scholar]
  170. Abdelmadjide, A.M.S.; Atef, C.; Nadia, Z.; Néji, B. Phytochemical study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of flavonoids and diethyl ether extracts from leaves and seeds of medicinal plant of algeria flora: Retama monosperma (L.) boiss. Int. J. Sci. Res. 2020, 76, 42–52. [Google Scholar]
  171. Bouredja, N.; Bouredja, M.; Mehdadi, Z. Study of the impact of the anthropological actions and the climate on the degradation of Retama monosperma (L.). Boiss growing in natural conditions in the Algerian western coast. J. Biodivers. Environ. Sci. JBES 2015, 6, 236–245. [Google Scholar]
  172. Chouikh, A.; Alia, F.; Neffar, S.; Rebiai, A.; Adjal, E.H.; Chefrour., A. Evaluation of phenolic contents (quantitative and qualitative) and antioxidant activities in different physiological phases of genista saharae coss. & dur. Growing in the Sahara of Algeria. An. Univ. Oradea Fasc. Biol. 2018, 25, 83–89. [Google Scholar]
  173. Lekmine, S.; Boussekine, S.; Kadi, K.; Martín-García, A.I.; Kheddouma, A.; Nagaz, K.; Bensouici, C. A comparative study on chemical profile and biological activities of aerial parts (stems, flowers, leaves, pods and seeds) of Astragalus gombiformis. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2020, 27, 101668. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  174. Teyeb, H.; Mabrouk, H.; Neffati, M.; Douki, W.; Najjar, M.F. Anticholinesterase activity of Astragalus gombiformis extracts. J. Biol. Act. Prod. Nat. 2011, 1, 344–348. [Google Scholar]
  175. Abdellah, K.; Zakaria, B.; Zakaria, M.; Mounira, K.; Fouzi, B.; Aek, H.; Toufik, G. Ould El Hadj-Khelil Aminata et Ould elhadj Mohamed Didi Étude de la toxicité des extraits foliaires d’Euphorbia guyoniana Boiss. et Reut. (Euphorbiaceae) chez Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) (Orthoptera-Acrididea). PhytoChem. BioSub. J. 2013, 7, 34–42. [Google Scholar]
  176. Dehliz, A.; Lakhdari, W.; Acheuk, F.; Aoudjit, R.; Benlamoudi, W.; Mlik, R.; Hammi, H.; Chergui, S.; Guermit, K.; Matallah, S. Euphorbia guyoniana aqueous extract efficiency against tomato leaf miner in southern East Algeria. Org. Agric. 2018, 8, 349–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  177. Chouikh, A. Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant, Analgesic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Ephedra Alata Decne. Female Cones Extract. Farmacia 2020, 68, 1011–1020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  178. Jerbi, A.; Zehri, S.; Abdnnabi, R.; Gharsallah, N.; Kammoun, M. Essential oil composition, free-radical-scavenging and antibacterial effect from stems of Ephedra alata alenda in Tunisia. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 2016, 19, 1503–1509. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  179. Belyagoubi-Benhammou, N.; Belyagoubi, L.; Bekkara, F.A. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in vitro of some selected Algerian plants. J. Med. Plants Res. 2014, 8, 1198–1207. [Google Scholar]
  180. Al-Hazmi, G.H.; Awaad, A.S.; Alothman, M.R.; Alqasoumi, S.I. Anticandidal activity of the extract and compounds isolated from Cyperus conglomertus Rottb. Saudi Pharm. J. 2018, 26, 891–895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  181. Al-Nuairi, A.G.; Mosa, K.A.; Mohammad, M.G.; El-Keblawy, A.; Soliman, S.; Alawadhi, H. Biosynthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from cyperus conglomeratus root extracts on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2020, 194, 560–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  182. Zaki, A.A.; Ross, S.A.; El-Amier, Y.A.; Khan, I.A. New flavans and stilbenes from Cyperus conglomeratus. Phytochem. Lett. 2018, 26, 159–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  183. Chouikh, A.; Chemsa, A.E.; Aounallah, C.; Aounallah, I.; Fatma, A. Phytochemical study, nutritive value, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of phenolic extracts from desert plant Calligonum comosum L’Hér. Alger. J. Biosci. 2020, 1, 68–75. [Google Scholar]
  184. Al–Saadi, M.; Fa, B.; Ah, A.S. Cytogenetic effects of Myrtus communis AND Plantago albicans Infusions on Bean root-Tip and Mice Bone-Marrow Cells. Arab. Univ. J. Agric. Sci. 2005, 13, 733–740. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  185. Benkhaled, A.; Senator, A. Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum pretreatment on nickel induced acute heamatotoxicity in male mice. Glob. Vet. 2015, 15, 493–497. [Google Scholar]
  186. Hadjadj, S.; Khadir, A.; Bensaci, S.; El Hadj, M.O.; El Hadj-Khelil, A.O. Comparison of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Limoniastrum guyonianum. Int. J. Biosci. 2016, 9, 35–44. [Google Scholar]
  187. Belfar, A.; Hadjadj, M.; Dakmouche, M.; Ghiaba, Z. Evaluation of antioxidants in ethanol extracts of Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) in Sahara of Algeria. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2015, 7, 41–47. [Google Scholar]
  188. Saidana, D.; Mahjoub, M.; Boussaada, O.; Chriaa, J.; Chéraif, I.; Daami, M.; Mighri, Z.; Helal, A. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile compounds of Tamarix boveana (Tamaricaceae). Microbiol. Res. 2008, 163, 445–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  189. Allaoui, M.; Cheriti, A.; Chebouat, E.; Dadamoussa, B.; Gherraf, N. Comparative study of the antioxidant activity and phenols and flavonoids contents of the ethyl acetate extracts from two saharan chenopodacea: Haloxylon scoparium AND Traganum nudatum. Alger. J. Arid. Environ. AJAE 2016, 6, 71–79. [Google Scholar]
  190. Labed, B.; Gherraf, N.; Hameurlaine, S.; Ladjel, S.; Zellagui, A. The antibacterial activity of water extracts of Traganum nudatum Del (Chenopodiaceae) growing in Algeria. Pharm. Lett. 2010, 2, 142–145. [Google Scholar]
  191. Abd-ElGawad, A.; El Gendy, A.E.-N.; El-Amier, Y.; Gaara, A.; Omer, E.; Al-Rowaily, S.; Assaeed, A.; Al-Rashed, S.; Elshamy, A. Essential oil of Bassia muricata: Chemical characterization, antioxidant activity, and allelopathic effect on the weed Chenopodium murale. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 2020, 27, 1900–1906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  192. Mohammedi, H.; Idjeri-Mecherara, S.; Menaceur, F.; Hassani, A. The effect of solvents and extraction procedure on the recovery of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of Algerian Bassia muricata L. extracts. Chem. J. Mold. 2019, 14, 79–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  193. Messaoudi, M.; Benreguieg, M.; Merah, M. Phytochemical screening of Algerian medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. Mycopath 2020, 16, 65–72. [Google Scholar]
  194. Can, Z.; Yildiz, O.; Sahin, H.; Turumtay, E.A.; Silici, S.; Kolayli, S. An investigation of Turkish honeys: Their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles. Food Chem. 2015, 180, 133–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  195. Amssayef, A.; Eddouks, M. Aqueous extract of matricaria pubescens exhibits antihypertensive activity in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats through its vasorelaxant effect. Cardiovasc. Hematol. Agents Med. Chem. Former. Curr. Med. Chem. Cardiovasc. Hematol. Agents 2019, 17, 135–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  196. Cherif, H.S.; Ferrah, R.; Bennacer, A.; Tail, G.; Saidi, F. Traditional Use of Matricaria Pubescens (Desf.) Schultz in Two Regions of Southern Algeria and Contribution to Study the Antioxidant Activity; NISCAIR-CSIR: New Delhi, India, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  197. Bouguerra, A.; Hadjadj, M.; Dekmouche, M.; Rahmani, Z.; Dendougui, H. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara. J. Appl. Biol. Biotechnol. 2019, 7, 63–69. [Google Scholar]
  198. Moussaoui, F.; Zellagui, A.; Segueni, N.; Touil, A.; Rhouati, S. emFlavonoid Constituents from Algerian Launaea resedifolia (OK), and their Antimicrobial Activity. Rec. Nat. Prod. 2010, 4, 91–95. [Google Scholar]
  199. Mouhajir, F.; Hudson, J.; Rejdali, M.; Towers, G. Multiple antiviral activities of endemic medicinal plants used by Berber peoples of Morocco. Pharm. Biol. 2001, 39, 364–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  200. Hameed, I.H.; Hamza, L.F.; Kamal, S.A. Analysis of bioactive chemical compounds of Aspergillus niger by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Pharmacogn. Phytother. 2015, 7, 132–163. [Google Scholar]
  201. Atef, C.; Abdelkrim, R.; Mahdia, A.; Mounira, H.; El Hadda, A.; Fatma, A. Effects of extraction methods on total polyphenols, free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Cleome arabica L. growing in Oued Souf region. Alger. J. Biosci. 2020, 1, 14–17. [Google Scholar]
  202. Chelalba, I.; Benchikha, N.; Begaa, S.; Messaoudi, M.; Debbeche, H.; Rebiai, A.; Youssef, F.S. Phytochemical composition and biological activity of Neurada procumbens L. growing in southern Algeria. J. Food Process. Preserv. 2020, 44, e1477. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Chemical formulas for natural compounds.
Figure 1. Chemical formulas for natural compounds.
Molecules 28 01834 g001
Figure 2. The most important biological activities of plant extracts.
Figure 2. The most important biological activities of plant extracts.
Molecules 28 01834 g002
Figure 3. The most important factors affecting the effectiveness of antioxidants.
Figure 3. The most important factors affecting the effectiveness of antioxidants.
Molecules 28 01834 g003
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Hemmami, H.; Seghir, B.B.; Zeghoud, S.; Ben Amor, I.; Kouadri, I.; Rebiai, A.; Zaater, A.; Messaoudi, M.; Benchikha, N.; Sawicka, B.; et al. Desert Endemic Plants in Algeria: A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Polyphenolic Compounds and Pharmacological Activities. Molecules 2023, 28, 1834.

AMA Style

Hemmami H, Seghir BB, Zeghoud S, Ben Amor I, Kouadri I, Rebiai A, Zaater A, Messaoudi M, Benchikha N, Sawicka B, et al. Desert Endemic Plants in Algeria: A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Polyphenolic Compounds and Pharmacological Activities. Molecules. 2023; 28(4):1834.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hemmami, Hadia, Bachir Ben Seghir, Soumeia Zeghoud, Ilham Ben Amor, Imane Kouadri, Abdelkrim Rebiai, Abdelmalek Zaater, Mohammed Messaoudi, Naima Benchikha, Barbara Sawicka, and et al. 2023. "Desert Endemic Plants in Algeria: A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Polyphenolic Compounds and Pharmacological Activities" Molecules 28, no. 4: 1834.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop