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Communication

Synthesis and Properties of Pentafluorosulfanyl Group (SF5)-Containing Meta-Diamide Insecticides

1
Bio & Drug Discovery Division, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34114, Korea
2
Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
3
Department of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea
4
Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
5
Central Research Institute, Kyung Nong Co. Ltd., 34-14 Summeori-gil, Kyongju 38175, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(23), 5536; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235536
Submission received: 21 October 2020 / Revised: 21 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020

Abstract

:
Herein, we describe novel pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group-containing meta-diamide insecticides. For the facile preparation of the SF5-based compounds 4ad, practical synthetic methods were applied. Among newly synthesized compounds, 3-benzamido-N-(2,6-dimethyl-4-(pentafluoro-λ6-sulfanyl)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide 4d showed (i) a high insecticidal activity, (ii) an excellent selectivity to insects, and (iii) good levels of water solubility and log P values. In this study, we demonstrated that the pentafluorosulfanyl moiety could serve as an attractive functionality for the discovery of a new scope of crop-protecting agents.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

The introduction of a fluorine atom into a biologically active compound can have a significant influence on its properties. One or more incorporated fluorine atoms can alter the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding parameters of the molecule as well as its physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties [1,2]. Currently, fluorine-containing substituents, which are commonly encountered in commercial pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, include fluoroaromatic, trifluoromethyl (CF3), trifluoromethoxy (OCF3), and trifluoromethlythio (SCF3) functionalities [3,4]. Another fluorinated substituent that reflects the continuing development of a relatively new fluorinated building block with distinct properties could be the pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group. The SF5 group is often called the “super-trifluoromethyl group”, and aryl sulfanyl pentafluorides display high thermal and chemical stability, electronegativity, and lipophilicity [5,6,7]. Due to its unique properties, the SF5 group has widely been applied in drug discovery and crop protection research (Figure 1) [8,9,10,11,12,13,14], since the first organic pentafluorosulfanyl compound was described in 1950 [15].
As a part of our ongoing efforts to discover new eco-friendly insecticides [16,17,18], we are particularly interested in small molecules containing the fluorine atom. One of the outstanding representatives of this category is broflanilide, which is known as an efficient broad-spectrum meta-diamide insecticide containing a high number of fluorine atoms [19,20]. Taking into account the suggested potential bioisosteric relationship between the SF5 and CF3 substituents [2,5], we proposed the novel design of the SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticide 4d (Figure 2). In order to examine the influence of SF5 moiety on the properties of the meta-diamide 4d (R1 = H, R2 and R3 = CH3) and investigate the significance of the effect caused by the replacement of the CF(CF3)2 group to SF5 functionality, the known meta-diamide insecticide BPB1 (R1 = H, R2 and R3 = CH3) was selected for this study (Figure 2). According to the previous studies on the development of meta-diamide-based insecticides, it was discovered that the insecticide BPB3 (R1 = CH3) can be metabolized to its active form, BPB1 (R1 = H), which in its turn demonstrates insecticidal activity by acting on the target RDL GABARs gene subunit and inhibiting its expression [19,20].

2. Results

The synthetic route shown in Scheme 1 was successfully applied for the preparation of the para-SF5 substituted aniline derivatives, 1bd. The synthesis was initiated by the bromination of a commercially available aniline, 1a using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), which led to the formation of mono- and di-bromo anilines 1a′ and 1a″, respectively. The molecules, 1a′ and 1a″ were subsequently methylated by the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling to give the corresponding anilines, 1b and 1d in 64% and 75% yields, respectively. Finally, 2-methyl-aniline 1b was further reacted with NBS in DMF to produce 2-methyl-6-bromo-aniline 1c with excellent yield [21].
The target compounds with the incorporated SF5 group were successfully prepared starting from 2-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid, which is commercially available and can be readily converted into the corresponding aniline 2 [22]. Benzoylation of 2 provided 3-benzamido-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3 in excellent yield [23]. Then, SF5-containing compounds 4ad were easily prepared by the condensation of benzoic acid 3 with 4-SF5-anilines 1ad (Scheme 2) [24].
The synthesized SF5-containing derivatives 4ad were examined for their insecticidal activities at 10 ppm concentration against the 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella using the leaf-dip method [16,17,18,25]. Among them, the compounds 4c and 4d showed excellent activities with high inhibition of feeding behaviors (entry 3 and 4, Table 1). Interestingly, 2,6-dimethyl-substituted compound 4d, SF5-containing meta-diamide BPB1, displayed an excellent potency with eating area—0~5%. According to the data in Table 1, it is reasonable to believe that the SF5 group can be considered as an important part of the toxophore.
The target site specificities of newly prepared SF5-based meta-diamide insecticide 4d should differ in insect and mammalian GABA and glycine receptors. In this regard, the cell-based antagonist activities of the meta-diamide 4d against the human GABAAR and glycine receptor (GlyR) A1 were investigated. According to the results obtained from previous studies, the mammalian GABAAR α1β3γ2 and the human glycine receptor (GlyR) A1 were selected for this study [19,26,27]. As shown in Table 2, the estimated IC50 values of SF5-containing meta-diamide 4d and broflanilide against GABAAR and GlyR were more than 30 μM. This discovery implies that SF5-containing meta-diamide 4d has much higher selectivity toward targeted insects.
There are a number of studies for confirming the existence of the strong relationship between insecticidal activity and bioavailability of the potential insecticides [18,28]. In this context, SF5-containing compound 4d, which showed the highest potency, was further investigated in its physicochemical properties, including LogP and solubility. As a reference, properties of broflanilide were also measured. For lipophilicity, most commonly referred to as LogP [29], replacing the heptafluoroisopropyl group with the SF5 moiety resulted in similar LogP values in broflanilide and the meta-diamide 4d (entry 1, Table 3). In addition, both the molecules meta-diamide 4d and broflanilide showed high levels of kinetic solubility [30].
Generally, the presence of fluoroaromatics and perfluoroalkanes increases the lipophilicity values of the molecules in comparison to the parental hydrocarbon bonds [31,32,33,34,35]. In addition to that, regarding its structural differences, the SF5 group possesses superior properties over other available fluorine-containing functionalities. Taking into consideration that lipophilicity plays a key role in transport processes [36], this result could be an important finding to discover new functionalities for application in the development of crop protecting agents.

3. Material and Methods

3.1. General Information

Melting points: Barnstead/Electrothermal 9300—measurements were performed in open glass capillaries. NMR spectra: Bruker AV 300 MHz (Bruker corporation, Billerica, MA, USA)(1H-NMR: 300 MHz, 13C-NMR: 75 MHz), AV 400 MHz (1H-NMR: 400 MHz, 13C-NMR: 100 MHz), AV 500 MHz (1H-NMR: 500 MHz, 13C-NMR: 125 MHz), and AV2 500 MHz (19F-NMR: 470 MHz); the spectra were recorded in CDCl3 and DMSO-d6 using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the internal standard and are reported in ppm. 1H-NMR data are reported as follows: (s—singlet; d—doublet; t—triplet; q—quartet; dd—doublet of doublet; m—multiplet; coupling constant(s) J are given in Hz; integration, proton assignment). High-resolution mass spectra (HRMS): JEOL JMS-700.
2-Methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (1b) [37,38]. A mixture of 2-bromo-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (500 mg, 3.223 mmol), methylboronic acid (2.0 eq., 6.446 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (0.1 eq., 0.322 mmol), and Cs2CO3 (3.0 eq., 9.669 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (8.6 mL) was stirred at 105 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc and washed with aq. NaHCO3. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography on a silica gel (hexane:EtOAc = 15:1) to give the desired product 1b as a yellow solid (481 mg, 64%).
2-bromo-6-methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (1c). To a solution of 2-methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (350 mg, 1.5 mmol) in DMF (15 mL), NBS (1.03 eq., 1.545 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 2 h, quenched with water, and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL). The organic layer was dried over NaSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (hexane:EtOAc = 20:1) to give the desired product 1c as a red solid (459 mg, 98%). mp 64~65 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.71 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (s, 2H), 2.25 (s, 3H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 146.0, 144.7, 129.2, 127.9, 122.8, 107.8, 19.4; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 86.46 (p, 1F, JSF–SF4 = 150.3 Hz, SF), 64.90 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF = 150.2 Hz, SF4); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C7H7BrF5NS 310.9403, found 310.9409 (see Supplementary Materials).
2,6-dimethyl-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (1d). A mixture of 2-bromo-6-methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)aniline (200 mg, 0.64 mmol), methylboronic acid (2.0 eq., 1.28 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2.DCM (0.1 eq., 0.064 mmol), and Cs2CO3 (3.0 eq., 1.92 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (1.7 mL) was stirred at 105 °C for 5 h. The mixture was diluted in EtOAc, washed with aq. NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography on a silica gel (hexane:EtOAc = 15:1) to give the desired product 1d as a brown solid (119 mg, 75%). mp 205~206 °C; 1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.34 (s, 2H), 3.90 (s, 2H), 2.20 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 145.2, 144.1, 128.0, 126.5, 121.8, 120.7, 18.0; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 87.32 (p, 1F, JSF–SF4 = 149.9 Hz, SF), 64.88 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF = 149.8 Hz, SF4); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C8H10F5NS 247.0454, found 247.0451 (see Supplementary Materials).
3-benzamido-2-fluorobenzoic acid (3). To 2-fluoro-3-nitro-benzoic acid (2 g, 10.8 mmol) in 44 mL of tetrahydrofuran, 20% palladium hydroxide on carbon (148 mg, 1.05 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred under hydrogen for 2 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a short pad of celite and the solution was evaporated (without a purification) to give the desired compound 3 as an ivory color solid (1.64 g, 98%). mp 257~258 °C; 1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 13.32 (s, 1H), 10.22 (s, 1H), 8.02–7.95 (m, 2H), 7.86–7.79 (m, 1H), 7.76–7.69 (m, 1H), 7.66– 7.59 (m, 1H), 7.58–7.51 (m, 2H), 7.31 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 165.5, 164.8, 133.7, 131.9, 131.1, 128.5, 128.5, 128.3, 127.8, 126.9, 123.8, 123.8; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ −119.6; HRMS (EI) calcd. for C14H10FNO3 259.0645, found 259.0638 (see Supplementary Materials).

3.2. General Method for the Synthesis of 4ad

A mixture of 3-benzamido-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3 (50 mg, 0.193 mmol) and SOCl2 (3.0 eq., 0.579 mmol) was refluxed for 2 h. The solution of aniline (0.9 eq., 0.174 mmol) and NaHCO3 (2.7 eq., 0.52 mmol) in acetone/water (0.4 mL/0.04 mL) was added in the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 1 h, quenched with water, and extracted with EtOAc (10 mL). The organic layer was dried over NaSO4, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (hexane:EtOAc = 10:1) to give the desired product.
3-Benzamido-2-fluoro-N-(4-(pentafluorothio)phenyl)benzamide (4a). This follows the general method. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (Hexane:EtOAc = 10:1) to give the desired diamide 4a as a white solid (55.3 mg, 78% yield). mp 193~194 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.63–8.57 (m, 1H), 8.44 (d, J = 12.4 Hz, 1H), 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.94–7.88 (m, 2H), 7.85–7.80 (m, 1H), 7.78 (s, 4H), 7.65–7.60 (m, 1H), 7.57–7.52 (m, 2H), 7.36 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 165.6, 161.3, 140.2, 133.9, 132.6, 129.1, 127.2, 127.1,127.0, 126.8, 126.4, 126.3, 125.5, 125.4, 121.3, 121.2, 119.6; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 84.83 (quin, 1F, JSF–SF4, J = 150.3 Hz, SF), 63.41 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF, J = 149.8 Hz, SF4), −131.28–−131.40 (m, 1F); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C20H14F6N2O2S 460.0680, found 460.0680 (see Supplementary Materials).
3-benzamido-2-fluoro-N-(2-methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)phenyl)benzamide (4b). This follows the general method. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (Hexane:EtOAc = 10:1) to give the desired diamide 4b as a white solid (54.3 mg, 73% yield). mp 189~190 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.64–8.59 (m, 1H), 8.42–8.34 (m, 2H), 8.11 (s, 1H), 7.94–7.87 (m, 3H), 7.67 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.64–7.60 (m, 2H), 7.56–7.52 (m, 2H), 7.38 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 2.42 (s, 3H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 165.6, 160.9, 152.2, 149.8, 138.6, 134.0, 132.6, 129.0, 127.9, 127.6, 127.1, 126.9, 126.8, 126.72, 126.70, 126.46, 126.44, 125.49, 125.46, 125.0, 121.3, 121.1, 121.0, 18.0; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 85.10 (t, 1F, JSF–SF4, J = 150.2 Hz, SF), 63.42 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF, J = 149.9 Hz, SF4), −132.30 (s, 1F); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C21H16F6N2O2S 474.0837, found 474.0837 (see Supplementary Materials).
3-benzamido-N-(2-bromo-6-methyl-4-(pentafluorothio)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (4c). This follows the general method. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (Hexane:EtOAc = 10:1) to give the desired diamide 4c as a brown solid (51.2 mg, 54% yield). mp 209~210 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.69–8.63 (m, 1H), 8.17–8.07 (m, 2H), 7.94–7.89 (m, 3H), 7.89–7.83 (m, 1H), 7.67 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.64–7.59 (m, 1H), 7.56–7.52 (m, 2H), 7.40–7.35 (m, 1H), 2.43 (s, 3H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 165.6, 161.0, 152.4, 149.9, 138.9, 137.0, 134.0, 132.6, 129.1, 128.0, 127.6, 127.2, 127.1, 127.0, 126.5, 126.3, 125.4, 125.3, 121.4, 120.5, 120.4, 20.0; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 82.97 (quin, 1F, JSF–SF4, J = 150.5 Hz, SF), 63.35 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF, J = 150.0 Hz, SF4), −130.98 (s, 1F); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C21H15BrF6N2O2S 551.9942, found 551.9954 (see Supplementary Materials).
3-benzamido-N-(2,6-dimethyl-4-(pentafluorothio)phenyl)-2-fluorobenzamide (4d). This follows the general method. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (Hexane:EtOAc = 10:1) to give the desired diamide 4d as a white solid (52.7 mg, 70% yield). mp 205~206 °C; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.60 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H), 8.13 (s, 1H), 7.93–7.90 (m, 2H), 7.85–7.80 (m, 2H), 7.64–7.59 (m, 1H), 7.56–7.51 (m, 4H), 7.36 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 2.36 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 165.6, 161.4, 161.3, 136.5, 136.4, 133.9, 132.5, 129.0, 127.1, 126.9, 126.8, 126.4, 126.4, 126.1, 126.15, 125.8, 125.8, 125.7, 125.3, 125.2, 18.9; 19F-NMR (470 MHz, CDCl3) δ 84.69 (quin, 1F, JSF–SF4, J = 150.3, SF), 63.09 (d, 4F, JSF4–SF, J = 149.7 Hz, SF4), −131.55 (s, 1F); HRMS (EI) calcd. for C22H18F6N2O2S 488.0993, found 488.0988 (see Supplementary Materials).

4. Conclusions

In summary, starting from the known meta-diamide BPB1 containing a heptafluoroisopropyl group and its isosteric replacement with pentafluorosulfanyl moiety (-SF5) led to the meta-diamide insecticide 4d, a compound with good potency, high selectivity toward insects, and a similar level of lipophilicity with broflanilide. For the preparation of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticides 4a–d, an efficient synthetic route was established. This study has demonstrated that the pentafluorosulfanyl group (-SF5) could be an appealing structural scaffold for the discovery of a new crop-protecting agent.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online: 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 1c.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 1d.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 3.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 4a.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 4b.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 4c.; 1H, 13C and 19F NMR spectroscopy of compound 4d.; Table S1 and S2: Larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella (4c and 4d); Figure S1: pH-metric Log P of compounds 4d (KI-03066); Figure S2: pH-metric Log P of Broflanilide and Figure S3. Ion Channels assay of 4d (KI-03066) and Broflanilide.

Author Contributions

Methodology, J.G.K., H.J.L. and S.J.P.; investigation, W.H.L., H.J.L. and S.J.P.; analysis, J.G.K., O.-Y.K., S.M.K., G.I., I.S.O., Y.L., W.H.L., H.J.L. and S.J.P.; writing—original draft preparation, H.J.L. and S.J.P.; writing—review and editing, O.-Y.K., S.M.K., G.I., I.S.O., Y.L., H.J.L. and S.J.P. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was fully supported by KRICT/Kyung Nong Co. Ltd. co-research project (TS191-06R, TS201-18R, and SI2031-40). This research was funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea, grant number 10077494. This research was also supported by the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2019M3E5D506617712).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Figure 1. SF5-containing biologically active compounds [8,9,10,11,12,13,14].
Figure 1. SF5-containing biologically active compounds [8,9,10,11,12,13,14].
Molecules 25 05536 g001
Figure 2. SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticides in this study.
Figure 2. SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticides in this study.
Molecules 25 05536 g002
Scheme 1. Reagents and conditions: (a) for 1a′: N-bromosuccinimide (1.1 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h; for 1a″: NBS (2.5 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h; (b) from 1a′ to 1b: CH3B(OH)2 (2.0 eq), Pd(dppf)2Cl2, Cs2CO3, 1,4-dioxane, reflux, 12 h; from 1a″ to 1d: CH3B(OH)2 (4.0 eq), Pd(dppf)2Cl2, Cs2CO3, 1,4-dioxane, reflux, 12 h; (c) from 1b to 1c: N-bromosuccinimide (1.5 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h.
Scheme 1. Reagents and conditions: (a) for 1a′: N-bromosuccinimide (1.1 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h; for 1a″: NBS (2.5 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h; (b) from 1a′ to 1b: CH3B(OH)2 (2.0 eq), Pd(dppf)2Cl2, Cs2CO3, 1,4-dioxane, reflux, 12 h; from 1a″ to 1d: CH3B(OH)2 (4.0 eq), Pd(dppf)2Cl2, Cs2CO3, 1,4-dioxane, reflux, 12 h; (c) from 1b to 1c: N-bromosuccinimide (1.5 eq), DMF, rt, 2 h.
Molecules 25 05536 sch001
Scheme 2. Reagents and conditions: (a) Benzoyl chloride, NaOH, H2O, rt, 6 h; (b) SOCl2, reflux, 1 h; (c) 4-SF5-anilines 1ad, NaHCO3, Acetone/H2O, reflux, 2 h.
Scheme 2. Reagents and conditions: (a) Benzoyl chloride, NaOH, H2O, rt, 6 h; (b) SOCl2, reflux, 1 h; (c) 4-SF5-anilines 1ad, NaHCO3, Acetone/H2O, reflux, 2 h.
Molecules 25 05536 sch002
Table 1. Insecticidal activities of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticides 4ad against the 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella.
Table 1. Insecticidal activities of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticides 4ad against the 3rd instar larvae of Plutella xylostella.
Molecules 25 05536 i001
EntrySF5-Containing Meta-Diamide InsecticidesAgainst the 3rd Instar Larvae of
Plutella xylostella at 10 ppm
CompoundR1R2R3XLarvicidal Activity (%)
at Time (h)
Eating Area (%)
72 h96 h96 h
14aHHHSF52836>30
24bHHCH3SF577>30
34cHBrCH3SF590905~10
44dHCH3CH3SF583870~5
5BroflanilideCH3BrCF3CF(CF3)21001000~5
Table 2. Summary of the antagonist activities of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticide 4d according to ion channel cell-based ionflux assays of wild-type GABAARs and GlyRs.
Table 2. Summary of the antagonist activities of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticide 4d according to ion channel cell-based ionflux assays of wild-type GABAARs and GlyRs.
EntryReceptorEstimated IC50 (μM)
SF5-Containing
Meta-Diamide 4d
Broflanilide
1GABAAR α1β3γ2>30>30
2GlyRA1>30>30
Table 3. Physical properties of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticide 4d.
Table 3. Physical properties of SF5-containing meta-diamide insecticide 4d.
Molecules 25 05536 i002
EntryCompoundR1R2R3XLogP a,bSolubility c,d (Kinetic)
14dHCH3CH3SF54.68313.3 ± 1.3 μM
(153.0 ± 0.6 μg/mL)
2BroflanilideCH3CF3BrCF(CF3)24.22>500 μM
(331.6 μg/mL)
a Using ACD/Labs T3 method (pH—metric); b for graphs, please see the supporting information; c Method for determination of kinetic solubility: nephelometry; d DMSO-stock solution 5% in water [18].
Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds are not available from the authors.
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Kim, J.G.; Kang, O.-Y.; Kim, S.M.; Issabayeva, G.; Oh, I.S.; Lee, Y.; Lee, W.H.; Lim, H.J.; Park, S.J. Synthesis and Properties of Pentafluorosulfanyl Group (SF5)-Containing Meta-Diamide Insecticides. Molecules 2020, 25, 5536. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235536

AMA Style

Kim JG, Kang O-Y, Kim SM, Issabayeva G, Oh IS, Lee Y, Lee WH, Lim HJ, Park SJ. Synthesis and Properties of Pentafluorosulfanyl Group (SF5)-Containing Meta-Diamide Insecticides. Molecules. 2020; 25(23):5536. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Jae Gon, On-Yu Kang, Sang Mee Kim, Guldana Issabayeva, In Seok Oh, Yaeji Lee, Won Hyung Lee, Hwan Jung Lim, and Seong Jun Park. 2020. "Synthesis and Properties of Pentafluorosulfanyl Group (SF5)-Containing Meta-Diamide Insecticides" Molecules 25, no. 23: 5536. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235536

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